Annotated Text of the California
Privacy Rights Act

(Does Not Include Changes from the CCPA)

Below is annotated text of the California Privacy Rights Act (CPRA) of 2020. This text does NOT include changes from the text of the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) that was approved by voters with the passage of Proposition 24. Annotations can be viewed on a PC or Mac by hovering over highlighted blue text or by tapping highlighted blue text on a mobile device. This Resource Center includes other versions of the text of the CPRA:

The California Privacy Rights Act of 2020

This measure shall be known, and may be cited, as the “California Privacy Rights Act of 2020.”

The people of the State of California hereby find and declare all of the following:

(A) In 1972, California voters amended the California Constitution to include the right of privacy among the “inalienable” rights of all people. Voters acted in response to the accelerating encroachment on personal freedom and security caused by increased data collection and usage in contemporary society. The amendment established a legal and enforceable constitutional right of privacy for every Californian. Fundamental to this right of privacy is the ability of individuals to control the use, including the sale, of their personal information.

(B) Since California voters approved the constitutional right of privacy, the California Legislature has adopted specific mechanisms to safeguard Californians’ privacy, including the Online Privacy Protection Act, the Privacy Rights for California Minors in the Digital World Act, and Shine the Light, but consumers had no right to learn what personal information a business had collected about them and how they used it or to direct businesses not to sell the consumer’s personal information.

(C) That changed in 2018, when more than 629,000 California voters signed petitions to qualify the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 for the ballot. In response to the measure’s qualification, the Legislature enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (CCPA) into law. The CCPA gives California consumers the right to learn what information a business has collected about them, to delete their personal information, to stop businesses from selling their personal information, including using it to target them with ads that follow them as they browse the internet from one website to another, and to hold businesses accountable if they do not take reasonable steps to safeguard their personal information.

(D) Even before the CCPA had gone into effect, the Legislature considered many bills in 2019 to amend the law, some of which would have significantly weakened it. Unless California voters take action, the hard-fought rights consumers have won could be undermined by future legislation.

(E) Rather than diluting privacy rights, California should strengthen them over time. Many businesses collect and use consumers’ personal information, sometimes without consumers’ knowledge regarding the business’s use and retention of their personal information. In practice, consumers are often entering into a form of contractual arrangement in which, while they do not pay money for a good or service, they exchange access to that good or service in return for access to their attention or access to their personal information. Because the value of the personal information they are exchanging for the good or service is often opaque, depending on the practices of the business, consumers often have no good way to value the transaction. In addition, the terms of agreement or policies in which the arrangements are spelled out, are often complex and unclear, and as a result, most consumers never have the time to read or understand them.

(F) This asymmetry of information makes it difficult for consumers to understand what they are exchanging and therefore to negotiate effectively with businesses. Unlike in other areas of the economy where consumers can comparison shop, or can understand at a glance if a good or service is expensive or affordable, it is hard for the consumer to know how much the consumers information is worth to any given business, when data use practices vary so widely between businesses.

(G) The State therefore has an interest in mandating laws that will allow consumers to understand more fully how their information is being used, and for what purposes. In the same way that ingredient labels on foods help consumers shop more effectively, disclosure around data management practices will help consumers become more informed counterparties in the data economy, and promote competition. Additionally, if a consumer can tell a business not to sell the consumer‘s data, then that consumer will not have to scour a privacy policy to see whether the business is, in fact, selling that data, and the resulting savings in time is worth, in the aggregate, a tremendous amount of money.

(H) Consumers need stronger laws to place them on a more equal footing when negotiating with businesses in order to protect their rights. Consumers should be entitled to a clear explanation of the uses of their personal information, including how it is used for advertising, and to control, correct, or delete it, including by allowing consumers to limit businesses’ use of their sensitive personal information to help guard against identity theft, to opt-out of the sale and sharing of their personal information, and to request that businesses correct inaccurate information about them.

(I) California is the world leader in many new technologies that have reshaped our society. The world today is unimaginable without the internet, one of the most momentous inventions in human history, and the new services and businesses that arose on top of it, many of which were invented here in California. One of the most successful business models for the internet has been services that rely on advertising to make money as opposed to charging consumers a fee. Advertising-supported services have existed for generations and can be a great model for consumers and businesses alike. However, some advertising businesses today use technologies and tools that are opaque to consumers to collect and trade vast amounts of personal information, to track them across the internet, and to create detailed profiles of their individual interests. Some companies that do not charge consumers a fee, subsidize these services by monetizing consumers’ personal information. Consumers should have the information and tools necessary to limit the use of their information to noninvasive proprivacy advertising, where their personal information is not sold to or shared with hundreds of businesses they’ve never heard of, if they choose to do so. Absent these tools, it will be virtually impossible for consumers to fully understand these contracts they are essentially entering into when they interact with various businesses.

(J) Children are particularly vulnerable from a negotiating perspective with respect to their privacy rights. Parents should be able to control what information is collected and sold or shared about their young children and should be given the right to demand that companies erase information collected about their children.

(K) Business should also be held directly accountable to consumers for data security breaches and notify consumers when their most sensitive information has been compromised.

(L) An independent watchdog whose mission is to protect consumer privacy should ensure that businesses and consumers are well-informed about their rights and obligations and should vigorously enforce the law against businesses that violate consumers’ privacy rights.

In enacting this Act, it is the purpose and intent of the people of the State of California to further protect consumers’ rights, including the constitutional right of privacy. The implementation of this Act shall be guided by the following principles:

(A) Consumer Rights

(B) Responsibilities of Businesses

(C) Implementation of the Law

  • (1) The rights of consumers and the responsibilities of businesses should be implemented with the goal of strengthening consumer privacy, while giving attention to the impact on business and innovation. Consumer privacy and the development of beneficial new products and services are not necessarily incompatible goals. Strong consumer privacy rights create incentives to innovate and develop new products that are privacy protective.
  • (2) Businesses and consumers should be provided with clear guidance about their responsibilities and rights.
  • (3) The law should place the consumer in a position to knowingly and freely negotiate with a business over the business’ use of the consumer’s personal information.
  • (4) The law should adjust to technological changes, help consumers exercise their rights, and assist businesses with compliance, with the continuing goal of strengthening consumer privacy.
  • (5) The law should enable pro‐consumer new products and services and promote efficiency of implementation for business, provided that the amendments do not compromise or weaken consumer privacy.
  • (6) The law should be amended, if necessary, to improve its operation, provided that the amendments do not compromise or weaken consumer privacy., while giving attention to the impact on business and innovation.
  • (7) Businesses should be held accountable for violating the law through vigorous administrative and civil enforcement.
  • (8) To the extent it advances consumer privacy and business compliance, the law should be compatible with privacy laws in other jurisdictions.

(a) A business that controls the collection of a consumer’s personal information shall, at or before the point of collection, inform consumers of the following:

(b) A business that, acting as a third party, controls the collection of personal information about a consumer may satisfy its obligation under subdivision (a) by providing the required information prominently and conspicuously on the homepage of its internet website. In addition, if a business, acting as a third party, controls the collection of personal information about a consumer on its premises, including in a vehicle, then the business shall, at or before the point of collection, inform consumers as to the categories of personal information to be collected and the purposes for which the categories of personal information are used, and whether such personal information is sold, in a clear and conspicuous manner at such location.

(c) A business’s collection, use, retention, and sharing of a consumer’s personal information shall be reasonably necessary and proportionate to achieve the purposes for which the personal information was collected or processed, or for another disclosed purpose that is compatible with the context in which the personal information was collected, and not further processed in a manner that is incompatible with those purposes.

(d) A business that collects a consumer’s personal information and that sells that personal information to, or shares it with, a third party or that discloses it to a service provider or contractor for a business purpose shall enter into an agreement with such third party, service provider, or contractor, that:

(e) A business that collects a consumer’s personal information shall implement reasonable security procedures and practices appropriate to the nature of the personal information to protect the personal information from unauthorized or illegal access, destruction, use, modification, or disclosure in accordance with Section 1798.81.5.

(f) Nothing in this section shall require a business to disclose trade secrets, as specified in regulations adopted pursuant to paragraph (3) of subdivision (a) of Section 1798.185.

(a) A consumer shall have the right to request that a business delete any personal information about the consumer which the business has collected from the consumer.

(b) A business that collects personal information about consumers shall disclose, pursuant to Section 1798.130, the consumer’s rights to request the deletion of the consumer’s personal information.

(c)

(d) A business, or a service provider or contractor, acting pursuant to its contract with the business, another service provider, or another contractor, shall not be required to comply with a consumer’s request to delete the consumer’s personal information if it is reasonably necessary for the business, service provider, or contractor to maintain the consumer’s personal information in order to:

  • (1) Complete the transaction for which the personal information was collected, fulfill the terms of a written warranty or product recall conducted in accordance with federal law, provide a good or service requested by the consumer, or reasonably anticipated by the consumer within the context of a business’s ongoing business relationship with the consumer, or otherwise perform a contract between the business and the consumer.
  • (2) Help to ensure security and integrity to the extent the use of the consumer’s personal information is reasonably necessary and proportionate for those purposes.
  • (3) Debug to identify and repair errors that impair existing intended functionality.
  • (4) Exercise free speech, ensure the right of another consumer to exercise that consumer’s right of free speech, or exercise another right provided for by law.
  • (5) Comply with the California Electronic Communications Privacy Act pursuant to Chapter 3.6 (commencing with Section 1546) of Title 12 of Part 2 of the Penal Code.
  • (6) Engage in public or peer reviewed scientific, historical, or statistical research that conforms or adheres to all other applicable ethics and privacy laws, when the business’s deletion of the information is likely to render impossible or seriously impair the ability to complete such research, if the consumer has provided informed consent.
  • (7) To enable solely internal uses that are reasonably aligned with the expectations of the consumer based on the consumer’s relationship with the business and compatible with the context in which the consumer provided the information.
  • (8) Comply with a legal obligation.

(a) A consumer shall have the right to request a business that maintains inaccurate personal information about the consumer correct such inaccurate personal information, taking into account the nature of the personal information and the purposes of the processing of the personal information.

(b) A business that collects personal information about consumers shall disclose, pursuant to Section 1798.130, the consumer’s right to request correction of inaccurate personal information.

(c) A business that receives a verifiable consumer request to correct inaccurate personal information shall use commercially reasonable efforts to correct the inaccurate personal information, as directed by the consumer, pursuant to Section 1798.130 and regulations adopted pursuant to paragraph (8) of subdivision (a) of Section 1798.185.

(a) A consumer shall have the right to request that a business that collects personal information about the consumer disclose to the consumer the following:

(b) A business that collects personal information about a consumer shall disclose to the consumer, pursuant to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (3) of subdivision (a) of Section 1798.130, the information specified in subdivision (a) upon receipt of a verifiable consumer request from the consumer, provided that a business shall be deemed to be in compliance with paragraphs (1) through (4) of subdivision (a) of this Section to the extent that the categories of information and the business or commercial purpose for collecting or selling or sharing personal information it would be required to disclose to the consumer pursuant to paragraphs (1) through (4) of subdivision (a) is the same as the information it has disclosed pursuant to paragraphs (1) to (4), inclusive, of subdivision (c).

(c) A business that collects personal information about consumers shall disclose, pursuant to subparagraphs (B) of paragraph (5) of subdivision (a) of Section 1798.130:

(a) A consumer shall have the right to request that a business that sells or shares the consumer’s personal information, or that discloses it for a business purpose, disclose to that consumer:

(b) A business that sells or shares personal information about a consumer, or that discloses a consumer’s personal information for a business purpose, shall disclose, pursuant to paragraph (4) of subdivision (a) of Section 1798.130, the information specified in subdivision (a) to the consumer upon receipt of a verifiable consumer request from the consumer.

(c) A business that sells or shares consumers’ personal information, or that discloses consumers’ personal information for a business purpose, shall disclose, pursuant to subparagraph (C) of paragraph (5) of subdivision (a) of Section 1798.130:

(d) A third party shall not sell or share personal information about a consumer that has been sold to, or shared with, the third party by a business unless the consumer has received explicit notice and is provided an opportunity to exercise the right to opt‐out pursuant to Section 1798.120.

(a) A consumer shall have the right, at any time, to direct a business that sells or shares personal information about the consumer to third parties not to sell or share the consumer’s personal information. This right may be referred to as the right to opt‐out of sale or sharing.

(b) A business that sells consumers’ personal information to, or shares it with, third parties shall provide notice to consumers, pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 1798.135, that this information may be sold or shared and that consumers have the “right to opt‐out” of the sale or sharing of their personal information.

(c) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), a business shall not sell or share the personal information of consumers if the business has actual knowledge that the consumer is less than 16 years of age, unless the consumer, in the case of consumers at least 13 years of age and less than 16 years of age, or the consumer’s parent or guardian, in the case of consumers who are less than 13 years of age, has affirmatively authorized the sale or sharing of the consumer’s personal information. A business that willfully disregards the consumer’s age shall be deemed to have had actual knowledge of the consumer’s age.

(d) A business that has received direction from a consumer not to sell or share the consumer’s personal information or, in the case of a minor consumer’s personal information has not received consent to sell or share the minor consumer’s personal information, shall be prohibited, pursuant to paragraph (4) of subdivision (c) of Section 1798.135, from selling or sharing the consumer’s personal information after its receipt of the consumer’s direction, unless the consumer subsequently provides consent, for the sale or sharing of the consumer’s personal information.

(a) A consumer shall have the right, at any time, to direct a business that collects sensitive personal information about the consumer to limit its use of the consumer’s sensitive personal information to that use which is necessary to perform the services or provide thegoods reasonably expected by an average consumer who requests such goods or services, to perform the services set forth in paragraphs (2), (4), (5), and (8) of subdivision (e) of Section 1798.140, and as authorized by regulations adopted pursuant to subparagraph (C) of paragraph (19) of subdivision (a) of Section 1798.185. A business that uses or discloses a consumer’s sensitive personal information for purposes other than those specified in this subdivision shall provide notice to consumers, pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 1798.135, that this information may be used, or disclosed to a service provider or contractor, for additional, specified purposes and that consumers have the right to limit the use or disclosure of their sensitive personal information.

(b) A business that has received direction from a consumer not to use or disclose the consumer’s sensitive personal information, except as authorized by subdivision (a), shall be prohibited, pursuant to paragraph (4) of subdivision (c) of Section 1798.135, from using or disclosing the consumer’s sensitive personal information for any other purpose after its receipt of the consumer’s direction, unless the consumer subsequently provides consent for the use or disclosure of the consumer’s sensitive personal information for additional purposes.

(c) A service provider or contractor that assists a business in performing the purposes authorized by subdivision (a) may not use the sensitive personal information, after it has received instructions from the business and to the extent it has actual knowledge that the personal information is sensitive personal information for any other purpose. A service provider or contractor is only required to limit its use of sensitive personal information received pursuant to a written contract with the business in response to instructions from the business and only with respect to its relationship with that business.

(d) Sensitive Personal information that is collected or processed without the purpose of inferring characteristics about a consumer, is not subject to this Section, as further defined in regulations adopted pursuant to subparagraph (C) of paragraph (19) of subdivision (a) of Section 1798.185, and shall be treated as personal information for purposes of all other sections of this Act, including Section 1798.100.

(a)

(b)

(a) In order to comply with Sections 1798.100, 1798.105, 1798.106, 1798.110, 1798.115, and 1798.125, a business shall, in a form that is reasonably accessible to consumers:

(b) A business is not obligated to provide the information required by Sections 1798.110 and 1798.115 to the same consumer more than twice in a 12‐month period.

(c) The categories of personal information required to be disclosed pursuant to Sections 1798.100, 1798.110 and 1798.115 shall follow the definitions of personal information and sensitive personal information in Section 1798.140 by describing the categories of personal information using the specific terms set forth in subparagraphs (A) through (K) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (v) of Section 1798.140 and by describing the categories of sensitive personal information using the specific terms set forth in paragraphs (1) through (9) of subdivision (ae) of Section 1798.140.

(a) A business that sells or shares consumers’ personal information or uses or discloses consumers’ sensitive personal information for purposes other than those authorized by subdivision (a) of Section 1798.121 shall, in a form that is reasonably accessible to consumers:

(b)

(c) A business that is subject to this section shall:

(d) Nothing in this title shall be construed to require a business to comply with the title by including the required links and text on the homepage that the business makes available to the public generally, if the business maintains a separate and additional homepage that is dedicated to California consumers and that includes the required links and text, and the business takes reasonable steps to ensure that California consumers are directed to the homepage for California consumers and not the homepage made available to the public generally.

(e) A consumer may authorize another person to opt-out of the sale or sharing of the consumer’s personal information and to limit the use of the consumer’s sensitive personal information on the consumer’s behalf, including through an opt-out preference signal, as defined in paragraph (1) of subdivision (b), indicating the consumer’s intent to opt out, and a business shall comply with an opt-out request received from a person authorized by the consumer to act on the consumer’s behalf, pursuant to regulations adopted by the Attorney General regardless of whether the business has elected to comply with subdivision (a) or (b). For purposes of clarity, a business that elects to comply with subdivision (a) may respond to the consumer’s opt-out consistent with Section 1798.125.

(f) If a business communicates a consumer’s opt-out request to any person authorized by the business to collect personal information, the person shall thereafter only use that consumer’s personal information for a business purpose specified by the business, or as otherwise permitted by this title, and shall be prohibited from:

(g) A business that communicates a consumer’s opt-out request to a person pursuant to subdivision (f) shall not be liable under this title if the person receiving the opt-out request violates the restrictions set forth in the title provided that, at the time of communicating the opt-out request, the business does not have actual knowledge, or reason to believe, that the person intends to commit such a violation. Any provision of a contract or agreement of any kind that purports to waive or limit in any way this subdivision shall be void and unenforceable.

For purposes of this title:

(a)Advertising and marketing” means a communication by a business or a person acting on the business’ behalf in any medium intended to induce a consumer to obtain goods, services, or employment.

(b)Aggregate consumer information” means information that relates to a group or category of consumers, from which individual consumer identities have been removed, that is not linked or reasonably linkable to any consumer or household, including via a device. “Aggregate consumer information” does not mean one or more individual consumer records that have been deidentified.

(c)Biometric information” means an individual’s physiological, biological or behavioral characteristics, including information pertaining to an individual’s deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), that is used or is intended to be used, singly or in combination with each other or with other identifying data, to establish individual identity. Biometric information includes, but is not limited to, imagery of the iris, retina, fingerprint, face, hand, palm, vein patterns, and voice recordings, from which an identifier template, such as a faceprint, a minutiae template, or a voiceprint, can be extracted, and keystroke patterns or rhythms, gait patterns or rhythms, and sleep, health, or exercise data that contain identifying information.

(d)Business” means:

  • (1) A sole proprietorship, partnership, limited liability company, corporation, association, or other legal entity that is organized or operated for the profit or financial benefit of its shareholders or other owners, that collects consumers’ personal information, or on the behalf of which such information is collected and that alone, or jointly with others, determines the purposes and means of the processing of consumers’ personal information, that does business in the State of California, and that satisfies one or more of the following thresholds:
  • (2) Any entity that controls or is controlled by a business, as defined in paragraph (1), and that shares common branding with the business and with whom the business shares consumers’ personal information. “Control” or “controlled” means ownership of, or the power to vote, more than 50 percent of the outstanding shares of any class of voting security of a business; control in any manner over the election of a majority of the directors, or of individuals exercising similar functions; or the power to exercise a controlling influence over the management of a company. “Common branding” means a shared name, servicemark, or trademark that the average consumer would understand that two or more entities are commonly owned.
  • (3) A joint venture or partnership composed of businesses in which each business has at least a 40 percent interest. For purposes of this title, the joint venture or partnership and each business that composes the joint venture or partnership shall separately be considered a single business, except that personal information in the possession of each business and disclosed to the joint venture or partnership shall not be shared with the other business.
  • (4) A person that does business in California, that is not covered by paragraph (1), (2), or (3) and that voluntarily certifies to the California Privacy Protection Agency that it is in compliance with, and agrees to be bound by, this title.

(e)Business purpose” means the use of personal information for the business’s operational purposes, or other notified purposes, or for the service provider or contractor’s operational purposes, as defined by regulations adopted pursuant to paragraph (11) of subdivision (a) of Section 1798.185, provided that the use of personal information shall be reasonably necessary and proportionate to achieve the purpose for which the personal information was collected or processed or for another purpose that is compatible with the context in which the personal information was collected. Business purposes are:

(f)Collects,” “collected,” or “collection” means buying, renting, gathering, obtaining, receiving, or accessing any personal information pertaining to a consumer by any means. This includes receiving information from the consumer, either actively or passively, or by observing the consumer’s behavior.

(g)Commercial purposes” means to advance a person’s commercial or economic interests, such as by inducing another person to buy, rent, lease, join, subscribe to, provide, or exchange products, goods, property, information, or services, or enabling or effecting, directly or indirectly, a commercial transaction.

(h)Consent” means any freely given, specific, informed, and unambiguous indication of the consumer’s wishes by which the consumer, or the consumer’s legal guardian, a person who has power of attorney, or a person acting as a conservator for the consumer, including by a statement or by a clear affirmative action, signifies agreement to the processing of personal information relating to the consumer for a narrowly defined particular purpose. Acceptance of a general or broad terms of use, or similar document, that contains descriptions of personal information processing along with other, unrelated information, does not constitute consent. Hovering over, muting, pausing, or closing a given piece of content does not constitute consent. Likewise, agreement obtained through use of dark patterns does not constitute consent.

(i)Consumer” means a natural person who is a California resident, as defined in Section 17014 of Title 18 of the California Code of Regulations, as that section read on September 1, 2017, however identified, including by any unique identifier.

(j)

(k)Cross-context behavioral advertising” means the targeting of advertising to a consumer based on the consumer’s personal information obtained from the consumer’s activity across businesses, distinctly-branded websites, applications, or services, other than the business, distinctly-branded website, application, or service with which the consumer intentionally interacts.

(l) Dark pattern” means a user interface designed or manipulated with the substantial effect of subverting or impairing user autonomy, decisionmaking, or choice, as further defined by regulation.

(m) Deidentified” means information that cannot reasonably be used to infer information about, or otherwise be linked to, a particular consumer provided that the business that possesses the information:

  • (1) Takes reasonable measures to ensure that the information cannot be associated with a consumer or household.
  • (2) Publicly commits to maintain and use the information in deidentified form and not to attempt to reidentify the information, except that the business may attempt to reidentify the information solely for the purpose of determining whether its deidentification processes satisfy the requirements of this subdivision.
  • (3) Contractually obligates any recipients of the information to comply with all provisions of this subdivision.

(n)Designated methods for submitting requests” means a mailing address, email address, internet web page, internet web portal, toll-free telephone number, or other applicable contact information, whereby consumers may submit a request or direction under this title, and any new, consumer-friendly means of contacting a business, as approved by the Attorney General pursuant to Section 1798.185.

(o)Device” means any physical object that is capable of connecting to the Internet, directly or indirectly, or to another device.

(p)Homepage” means the introductory page of an internet website and any internet web page where personal information is collected. In the case of an online service, such as a mobile application, homepage means the application’s platform page or download page, a link within the application, such as from the application configuration, “About,” “Information,’’ or settings page, and any other location that allows consumers to review the notices required by this title, including, but not limited to, before downloading the application.

(q) Household” means a group, however identified, of consumers who cohabitate with one another at the same residential address and share use of common devices or services.

(r)Infer” or “inference” means the derivation of information, data, assumptions, or conclusions from facts, evidence, or another source of information or data.

(s) Intentionally interacts means when the consumer intends to interact with a person, or disclose personal information to a person, via one or more deliberate interactions, including visiting the person’s website or purchasing a good or service from the person. Hovering over, muting, pausing, or closing a given piece of content does not constitute a consumer’s intent to interact with a person.

(t) Nonpersonalized advertising” means advertising and marketing that is based solely on a consumer’s personal information derived from the consumer’s current interaction with the business with the exception of the consumer’s precise geolocation.

(u)Person” means an individual, proprietorship, firm, partnership, joint venture, syndicate, business trust, company, corporation, limited liability company, association, committee, and any other organization or group of persons acting in concert.

(v)

  • (1)Personal information” means information that identifies, relates to, describes, is reasonably capable of being associated with, or could reasonably be linked, directly or indirectly, with a particular consumer or household. Personal information includes, but is not limited to, the following if it identifies, relates to, describes, is reasonably capable of being associated with, or could be reasonably linked, directly or indirectly, with a particular consumer or household:
    • (A) Identifiers such as a real name, alias, postal address, unique personal identifier, online identifier, Internet Protocol address, email address, account name, social security number, driver’s license number, passport number, or other similar identifiers.
    • (B) Any personal information described in subdivision (e) of Section 1798.80.
    • (C) Characteristics of protected classifications under California or federal law.
    • (D) Commercial information, including records of personal property, products or services purchased, obtained, or considered, or other purchasing or consuming histories or tendencies.
    • (E) Biometric information.
    • (F) Internet or other electronic network activity information, including, but not limited to, browsing history, search history, and information regarding a consumer’s interaction with an internet website application, or advertisement.
    • (G) Geolocation data.
    • (H) Audio, electronic, visual, thermal, olfactory, or similar information.
    • (I) Professional or employment-related information.
    • (J) Education information, defined as information that is not publicly available personally identifiable information as defined in the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (20 U.S.C. Sec. 1232g; 34 C.F.R. Part 99).
    • (K) Inferences drawn from any of the information identified in this subdivision to create a profile about a consumer reflecting the consumer’s preferences, characteristics, psychological trends, predispositions, behavior, attitudes, intelligence, abilities, and aptitudes.
    • (L) Sensitive personal information.
  • (2)Personal information” does not include publicly available information or lawfully obtained, truthful information that is a matter of public concern. For purposes of this paragraph, “publicly available” means: information that is lawfully made available from federal, state, or local government records, or information that a business has a reasonable basis to believe is lawfully made available to the general public by the consumer or from widely distributed media, or by the consumer; or information made available by a person to whom the consumer has disclosed the information if the consumer has not restricted the information to a specific audience. “Publicly available” does not mean biometric information collected by a business about a consumer without the consumer’s knowledge.
  • (3)Personal information” does not include consumer information that is deidentified or aggregate consumer information.

(w) Precise geolocation” means any data that is derived from a device and that is used or intended to be used to locate a consumer within a geographic area that is equal to or less than the area of a circle with a radius of 1,850 feet, except as prescribed by regulations.

(x)Probabilistic identifier” means the identification of a consumer or a consumer’s device to a degree of certainty of more probable than not based on any categories of personal information included in, or similar to, the categories enumerated in the definition of personal information.

(y)Processing” means any operation or set of operations that are performed on personal information or on sets of personal information, whether or not by automated means.

(z)Profiling” means any form of automated processing of personal information, as further defined by regulations pursuant to paragraph (16) of subdivision (a) of Section 1798.185, to evaluate certain personal aspects relating to a natural person and in particular to analyze or predict aspects concerning that natural person’s performance at work, economic situation, health, personal preferences, interests, reliability, behavior, location, or movements.

(aa)Pseudonymize” or “Pseudonymization” means the processing of personal information in a manner that renders the personal information no longer attributable to a specific consumer without the use of additional information, provided that the additional information is kept separately and is subject to technical and organizational measures to ensure that the personal information is not attributed to an identified or identifiable consumer.

(ab)Research” means scientific analysis, systematic study and observation, including basic research or applied research that is designed to develop or contribute to public or scientific knowledge and that adheres or otherwise conforms to all other applicable ethics and privacy laws, including, but not limited to, studies conducted in the public interest in the area of public health. Research with personal information that may have been collected from a consumer in the course of the consumer’s interactions with a business’s service or device for other purposes shall be:

(ac) Security and integrity” means the ability of:

  • (1) Networks or information systems to detect security incidents that compromise the availability, authenticity, integrity, and confidentiality of stored or transmitted personal information.
  • (2) Businesses to detect security incidents, resist malicious, deceptive, fraudulent, or illegal actions and to help prosecute those responsible for those actions.
  • (3) Businesses to ensure the physical safety of natural persons.

(ad)

(ae) Sensitive personal information means:

(af)Service” or “services” means work, labor, and services, including services furnished in connection with the sale or repair of goods.

(ag)

(ah)

(ai)Third party” means a person who is not any of the following:

(aj)Unique identifier” or “Unique personal identifier” means a persistent identifier that can be used to recognize a consumer, a family, or a device that is linked to a consumer or family, over time and across different services, including, but not limited to, a device identifier; an Internet Protocol address; cookies, beacons, pixel tags, mobile ad identifiers, or similar technology; customer number, unique pseudonym, or user alias; telephone numbers, or other forms of persistent or probabilistic identifiers that can be used to identify a particular consumer or device that is linked to a consumer or family. For purposes of this subdivision, “family” means a custodial parent or guardian and any children under 18 years of age over which the parent or guardian has custody.

(ak)Verifiable consumer request” means a request that is made by a consumer, by a consumer on behalf of the consumer’s minor child, by a natural person or a person registered with the Secretary of State, authorized by the consumer to act on the consumer’s behalf, or by a person who has power of attorney or is acting as a conservator for the consumer, and that the business can verify, using commercially reasonable methods, pursuant to regulations adopted by the Attorney General pursuant to paragraph (7) of subdivision (a) of Section 1798.185 to be the consumer about whom the business has collected personal information. A business is not obligated to provide information to the consumer pursuant to Sections 1798.110 and 1798.115, to delete personal information pursuant to Section 1798.105, or to correct inaccurate personal information pursuant to Section 1798.106, if the business cannot verify, pursuant to this subdivision and regulations adopted by the Attorney General pursuant to paragraph (7) of subdivision (a) of Section 1798.185, that the consumer making the request is the consumer about whom the business has collected information or is a person authorized by the consumer to act on such consumer’s behalf.

(a) The obligations imposed on businesses by this title shall not restrict a business’s ability to:

(b) The obligations imposed on businesses by Sections 1798.110, 1798.115, 1798.120, 1798.121, 1798.130, and 1798.135, shall not apply where compliance by the business with the title would violate an evidentiary privilege under California law and shall not prevent a business from providing the personal information of a consumer to a person covered by an evidentiary privilege under California law as part of a privileged communication.

(c)

(d)

(e) This title shall not apply to personal information collected, processed, sold, or disclosed subject to the federal Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (Public Law 106-102), and implementing regulations, or the California Financial Information Privacy Act (Division 1.4 (commencing with Section 4050) of the Financial Code), or the federal Farm Credit Act of 1971 (as amended in 12 U.S.C. 2001-2279cc and implementing regulations, 12 C.F.R. 600, et seq.). This subdivision shall not apply to Section 1798.150.

(f) This title shall not apply to personal information collected, processed, sold, or disclosed pursuant to the Driver’s Privacy Protection Act of 1994 (18 U.S.C. Sec. 2721 et seq.). This subdivision shall not apply to Section 1798.150.

(g)

  • (1) Section 1798.120 shall not apply to vehicle information or ownership information retained or shared between a new motor vehicle dealer, as defined in Section 426 of the Vehicle Code, and the vehicle’s manufacturer, as defined in Section 672 of the Vehicle Code, if the vehicle or ownership information is shared for the purpose of effectuating, or in anticipation of effectuating, a vehicle repair covered by a vehicle warranty or a recall conducted pursuant to Sections 30118 to 30120, inclusive, of Title 49 of the United States Code, provided that the new motor vehicle dealer or vehicle manufacturer with which that vehicle information or ownership information is shared does not sell, share, or use that information for any other purpose.
  • (2) For purposes of this subdivision:
    • (A) “Vehicle information” means the vehicle information number, make, model, year, and odometer reading.
    • (B) “Ownership information” means the name or names of the registered owner or owners and the contact information for the owner or owners.

(h) Notwithstanding a business’s obligations to respond to and honor consumer rights requests pursuant to this title:

  • (1) A time period for a business to respond to a consumer for any verifiable consumer request may be extended by up to a total of 90 days where necessary, taking into account the complexity and number of the requests. The business shall inform the consumer of any such extension within 45 days of receipt of the request, together with the reasons for the delay.
  • (2) If the business does not take action on the request of the consumer, the business shall inform the consumer, without delay and at the latest within the time period permitted of response by this section, of the reasons for not taking action and any rights the consumer may have to appeal the decision to the business.
  • (3) If requests from a consumer are manifestly unfounded or excessive, in particular because of their repetitive character, a business may either charge a reasonable fee, taking into account the administrative costs of providing the information or communication or taking the action requested, or refuse to act on the request and notify the consumer of the reason for refusing the request. The business shall bear the burden of demonstrating that any verifiable consumer request is manifestly unfounded or excessive.

(i)

(j) This title shall not be construed to require a business service provider, or contractor to:

(k) The rights afforded to consumers and the obligations imposed on the business in this title shall not adversely affect the rights and freedoms of other natural persons. A verifiable consumer request for specific pieces of personal information pursuant to Section 1798.110, to delete a consumer’s personal information pursuant to Section 1798.105, or to correct inaccurate personal information pursuant to Section 1798.106, shall not extend to personal information about the consumer that belongs to, or the business maintains on behalf of, another natural person. A business may rely on representations made in a verifiable consumer request as to rights with respect to personal information and is under no legal requirement to seek out other persons that may have or claim to have rights to personal information, and a business is under no legal obligation under this title or any other provision of law to take any action under this title in the event of a dispute between or among persons claiming rights to personal information in the business’ possession.

(l) The rights afforded to consumers and the obligations imposed on any business under this title shall not apply to the extent that they infringe on the noncommercial activities of a person or entity described in subdivision (b) of Section 2 of Article I of the California Constitution.

(m)

  • (1) This title shall not apply to any of the following:
  • (2) For purposes of this subdivision:
    • (A) “Independent contractor” means a natural person who provides any service to a business pursuant to a written contract.
    • (B) “Director” means a natural person designated in the articles of incorporation as director, or elected by the incorporators and natural persons designated, elected, or appointed by any other name or title to act as directors, and their successors.
    • (C) “Medical staff member” means a licensed physician and surgeon, dentist, or podiatrist, licensed pursuant to Division 2 (commencing with Section 500) of the Business and Professions Code and a clinical psychologist as defined in Section 1316.5 of the Health and Safety Code.
    • (D) “Officer” means a natural person elected or appointed by the board of directors to manage the daily operations of a corporation, including a chief executive officer, president, secretary, or treasurer.
    • (E) “Owner” means a natural person who meets one of the following criteria:
      • (i) Has ownership of, or the power to vote, more than 50 percent of the outstanding shares of any class of voting security of a business.
      • (ii) Has control in any manner over the election of a majority of the directors or of individuals exercising similar functions.
      • (iii) Has the power to exercise a controlling influence over the management of a company.
  • (3) This subdivision shall not apply to subdivision (a) of Section 1798.100 or Section 1798.150.
  • (4) This subdivision shall become inoperative on January 1, 2023.

(n)

  • (1) The obligations imposed on businesses by Sections 1798.100, 1798.105, 1798.106, 1798.110, 1798.115, 1798.121, 1798.130, and 1798.135 shall not apply to personal information reflecting a written or verbal communication or a transaction between the business and the consumer, where the consumer is a natural person who acted or is acting as an employee, owner, director, officer, or independent contractor of a company, partnership, sole proprietorship, non-profit, or government agency and whose communications or transaction with the business occur solely within the context of the business conducting due diligence regarding, or providing or receiving a product or service to or from such company, partnership, sole proprietorship, non- profit, or government agency.
  • (2) For purposes of this subdivision:
    • (A) “Independent contractor” means a natural person who provides any service to a business pursuant to a written contract.
    • (B) “Director” means a natural person designated in the articles of incorporation as such or elected by the incorporators and natural persons designated, elected, or appointed by any other name or title to act as directors, and their successors.
    • (C) “Officer” means a natural person elected or appointed by the board of directors to manage the daily operations of a corporation, such as a chief executive officer, president, secretary, or treasurer.
    • (D) “Owner” means a natural person who meets one of the following:
      • (i) Has ownership of, or the power to vote, more than 50 percent of the outstanding shares of any class of voting security of a business.
      • (ii) Has control in any manner over the election of a majority of the directors or of individuals exercising similar functions.
      • (iii) Has the power to exercise a controlling influence over the management of a company.
  • (3) This subdivision shall become inoperative on January 1,2023.

(o)

  • (1) Sections 1798.105 and 1798.120 shall not apply to a commercial credit reporting agency’s collection, processing, sale, or disclosure of business controller information to the extent the commercial credit reporting agency uses the business controller information solely to identify the relationship of a consumer to a business that the consumer owns or contact the consumer only in the consumer’s role as the owner, director, officer, or management employee of the business.
  • (2) For the purposes of this subdivision:
    • (A)Business controller information” means the name or names of the owner or owners, director, officer, or management employee of a business and the contact information, including a business title, for the owner or owners, director, officer, or management employee.
    • (B) “Commercial credit reporting agency” has the meaning set forth in subdivision (b) of Section 1785.42.
    • (C) “Owner” means a natural person that meets one of the following:
      • (i) Has ownership of, or the power to vote, more than 50 percent of the outstanding shares of any class of voting security of a business.
      • (ii) Has control in any manner over the election of a majority of the directors or of individuals exercising similar functions.
      • (iii) Has the power to exercise a controlling influence over the management of a company.
    • (D) “Director” means a natural person designated in the articles of incorporation of a business as director, or elected by the incorporators and natural persons designated, elected, or appointed by any other name or title to act as directors, and their successors.
    • (E) “Officer” means a natural person elected or appointed by the board of directors of a business to manage the daily operations of a corporation, including a chief executive officer, president, secretary, or treasurer.
    • (F) “Management employee” means a natural person whose name and contact information is reported to or collected by a commercial credit reporting agency as the primary manager of a business and used solely within the context of the natural person’s role as the primary manager of the business.

(p) The obligations imposed on businesses in Sections 1798.105, 1798.106, 1798.110, and 1798.115 shall not apply to household data.

(q)

  • (1) This title does not require a business to comply with a verifiable consumer request to delete a consumer’s personal information under Section 1798.105 to the extent the verifiable consumer request applies to a student’s grades, educational scores, or educational test results that the business holds on behalf of a local educational agency, as defined in subdivision (d) of Section 49073.1 of the Education Code, at which the student is currently enrolled. If a business does not comply with a request pursuant to this section, it shall notify the consumer that it is acting pursuant to this exception.
  • (2) This title does not require, in response to a request pursuant to Section 1798.110, that a business disclose on educational standardized assessment or educational assessment or a consumer’s specific responses to the educational standardized assessment or educational assessment if consumer access, possession, or control would jeopardize the validity and reliability of that educational standardized assessment or educational assessment. If a business does not comply with a request pursuant to this section, it shall notify the consumer that it is acting pursuant to this exception.
  • (3) Far purposes of this subdivision:
    • (A) “Educational standardized assessment or educational assessment” means a standardized or nonstandardized quiz, test, or other assessment used to evaluate students in or for entry to kindergarten and grades 1 to 12, inclusive, schools, postsecondary institutions, vocational programs, and postgraduate programs that are accredited by an accrediting agency or organization recognized by the State of California or the United States Department of Education, as well as certification and licensure examinations used to determine competency and eligibility to receive certification or licensure from a government agency or government certification body.
    • (B) “Jeopardize the validity and reliability of that educational standardized assessment or educational assessment” means releasing information that would provide an advantage to the consumer who has submitted a verifiable consumer request or to another natural person.

(r) Sections 1798.105 and 1798.120 shall not apply to a business’ use, disclosure, or sale of particular pieces of a consumer’s personal information if the consumer has consented to the business’ use, disclosure, or sale of that information to produce a physical item, including a school yearbook containing the consumer’s photograph if:

(a)

  • (1) Any consumer whose nonencrypted and nonredacted personal information, as defined in subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (d) of Section 1798.81.5, or whose email address in combination with a password or security question and answer that would permit access to the account is subject to an unauthorized access and exfiltration, theft, or disclosure as a result of the business’s violation of the duty to implement and maintain reasonable security procedures and practices appropriate to the nature of the information to protect the personal information may institute a civil action for any of the following:
    • (A) To recover damages in an amount not less than one hundred dollars ($100) and not greater than seven hundred and fifty ($750) per consumer per incident or actual damages, whichever is greater.
    • (B) Injunctive or declaratory relief.
    • (C) Any other relief the court deems proper.
  • (2) In assessing the amount of statutory damages, the court shall consider any one or more of the relevant circumstances presented by any of the parties to the case, including, but not limited to, the nature and seriousness of the misconduct, the number of violations, the persistence of the misconduct, the length of time over which the misconduct occurred, the willfulness of the defendant’s misconduct, and the defendant’s assets, liabilities, and net worth.

(b) Actions pursuant to this section may be brought by a consumer if, prior to initiating any action against a business for statutory damages on an individual or class-wide basis, a consumer provides a business 30 days’ written notice identifying the specific provisions of this title the consumer alleges have been or are being violated. In the event a cure is possible, if within the 30 days the business actually cures the noticed violation and provides the consumer an express written statement that the violations have been cured and that no further violations shall occur, no action for individual statutory damages or class- wide statutory damages may be initiated against the business. The implementation and maintenance of reasonable security procedures and practices pursuant to Section 1798.81.5 following a breach does not constitute a cure with respect to that breach. No notice shall be required prior to an individual consumer initiating an action solely for actual pecuniary damages suffered as a result of the alleged violations of this title. If a business continues to violate this title in breach of the express written statement provided to the consumer under this section, the consumer may initiate an action against the business to enforce the written statement and may pursue statutory damages for each breach of the express written statement, as well as any other violation of the title that postdates the written statement.

(c) The cause of action established by this section shall apply only to violations as defined in subdivision (a) and shall not be based on violations of any other section of this title. Nothing in this title shall be interpreted to serve as the basis for a private right of action under any other law. This shall not be construed to relieve any party from any duties or obligations imposed under other law or the United States or California Constitution.

(a) Any business, service provider, contractor, or other person that violates this title shall be liable for an administrative fine of not more than two thousand five hundred dollars ($2,500) for each violation or seven thousand five hundred dollars ($7,500) for each intentional violation or violations involving the personal information of consumers whom the business, service provider, contractor, or other person has actual knowledge are under 16 years of age, as adjusted pursuant to paragraph (5) of subdivision (a) of Section 1798.185, in an administrative enforcement action brought by the California Privacy Protection Agency.

(b) Any administrative fine assessed for a violation of this title, and the proceeds of any settlement of an action brought pursuant to subdivision (a), shall be deposited in the Consumer Privacy Fund, created within the General Fund pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 1798.160 with the intent to fully offset any costs incurred by the state courts, the Attorney General, and the California Privacy Protection Agency in connection with this title.

(a) A special fund to be known as the “Consumer Privacy Fund” is hereby created within the General Fund in the State Treasury, and is available upon appropriation by the Legislature first to offset any costs incurred by the state courts in connection with actions brought to enforce this title, the costs incurred by the Attorney General in carrying out the Attorney General’s duties under this title, and then for the purposes of establishing an investment fund in the State Treasury, with any earnings or interest from the fund to be deposited in the General Fund, and making grants to promote and protect consumer privacy, educate children in the area of online privacy, and fund cooperative programs with international law enforcement organizations to combat fraudulent activities with respect to consumer data breaches.

(b) Funds transferred to the Consumer Privacy Fund shall be used exclusively as follows:

  • (1) To offset any costs incurred by the state courts and the Attorney General in connection with this title.
  • (2) After satisfying the obligations under paragraph (1), the remaining funds shall be allocated each fiscal year as follows:
    • (A) Ninety-one percent shall be invested by the Treasurer in financial assets with the goal of maximizing long term yields consistent with a prudent level of risk. The principal shall not be subject to transfer or appropriation, provided that any interest and earnings shall be transferred on an annual basis to the General Fund for appropriation by the Legislature for General Fund purposes.
    • (B) Nine percent shall be made available to the California Privacy Protection Agency for the purposes of making grants in California, with 3 percent allocated to each of the following grant recipients:
      • (i) Nonprofit organizations to promote and protect consumer privacy.
      • (ii) Nonprofit organizations and public agencies, including school districts, to educate children in the area of online privacy.
      • (iii) State and local law enforcement agencies to fund cooperative programs with international law enforcement organizations to combat fraudulent activities with respect to consumer data breaches.

(c) Funds in the Consumer Privacy Fund shall not be subject to appropriation or transfer by the Legislature for any other purpose.

This title is intended to further the constitutional right of privacy and to supplement existing laws relating to consumers’ personal information, including, but not limited to, Chapter 22 (commencing with Section 22575) of Division 8 of the Business and Professions Code and Title 1.81 (commencing with Section 1798.80). The provisions of this title are not limited to information collected electronically or over the Internet, but apply to the collection and sale of all personal information collected by a business from consumers. Wherever possible, law relating to consumers’ personal information should be construed to harmonize with the provisions of this title, but in the event of a conflict between other laws and the provisions of this title, the provisions of the law that afford the greatest protection for the right of privacy for consumers shall control

This title is a matter of statewide concern and supersedes and preempts all rules, regulations, codes, ordinances, and other laws adopted by a city, county, city and county, municipality, or local agency regarding the collection and sale of consumers’ personal information by a business.

(a) On or before July 1, 2020, the Attorney General shall solicit broad public participation and adopt regulations to further the purposes of this title, including, but not limited to, the following areas:

(b) The Attorney General may adopt additional regulations as necessary to further the purposes of this title.

(c) The Attorney General shall not bring an enforcement action under this title until six months after the publication of the final regulations issued pursuant to this section or July 1, 2020, whichever is sooner.

(d) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), the timeline for adopting final regulations required by the act adding this subdivision shall be July 1, 2022. Beginning the later of July 1, 2021, or six months after the agency provides notice to the Attorney General that it is prepared to begin rulemaking under this title, the authority assigned to the Attorney General to adopt regulations under this section shall be exercised by the California Privacy Protection Agency. Notwithstanding any other law, civil and administrative enforcement of the provisions of law added or amended by this act shall not commence until July 1, 2023, and shall only apply to violations occurring on or after that date. Enforcement of provisions of law contained in the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 amended by this act shall remain in effect and shall be enforceable until the same provisions of this act become enforceable.

A court or the agency shall disregard the intermediate steps or transactions for purposes of effectuating the purposes of this title:

(a) If a series of steps or transactions were component parts of a single transaction intended from the beginning to be taken with the intention of avoiding the reach of this title, including the disclosure of information by a business to a third party in order to avoid the definition of sell, or share.

(b) If steps or transactions were taken to purposely avoid the definition of sell or share by eliminating any monetary or other valuable consideration, including by entering into contracts that do not include an exchange for monetary or other valuable consideration, but where a party is obtaining something of value or use

Any provision of a contract or agreement of any kind, including a representative action waiver, that purports to waive or limit in any way rights under this title, including, but not limited to, any right to a remedy or means of enforcement, shall be deemed contrary to public policy and shall be void and unenforceable. This section shall not prevent a consumer from declining to request information from a business, declining to opt out of a business’s sale of the consumer’s personal information, or authorizing a business to sell or share the consumer’s personal information after previously opting out.

1798.199.10. (a) There is hereby established in state government the California Privacy Protection Agency, which is vested with full administrative power, authority, and jurisdiction to implement and enforce the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018. The agency shall be governed by a five-member board, including the chairperson. The chairperson and one member of the board shall be appointed by the Governor. The Attorney General, Senate Rules Committee, and Speaker of the Assembly shall each appoint one member. These appointments should be made from among Californians with expertise in the areas of privacy, technology, and consumer rights.

(b) The initial appointments to the agency shall be made within 90 days of the effective date of the act adding this section.

1798.199.15. Members of the agency board shall:

(a) Have qualifications, experience, and skills, in particular in the areas of privacy and technology, required to perform the duties of the agency and exercise its powers.

(b) Maintain the confidentiality of information which has come to their knowledge in the course of the performance of their tasks or exercise of their powers, except to the extent that disclosure is required by the Public Records Act.

(c) Remain free from external influence, whether direct or indirect, and shall neither seek nor take instructions from another.

(d) Refrain from any action incompatible with their duties and engaging in any incompatible occupation, whether gainful or not, during their term.

(e) Have the right of access to all information made available by the agency to the chairperson.

(f) Be precluded, for a period of one year after leaving office, from accepting employment with a business that was subject to an enforcement action or civil action under this title during the member’s tenure or during the five-year period preceding the member’s appointment.

(g) Be precluded for a period of two years after leaving office from acting, for compensation, as an agent or attorney for, or otherwise representing, any other person in a matter pending before the agency if the purpose is to influence an action of the agency.

1798.199.20. Members of the agency board, including the chairperson, shall serve at the pleasure of their appointing authority but shall serve for no longer than eight consecutive years.

1798.199.25. For each day on which they engage in official duties, members of the agency board shall be compensated at the rate of one hundred dollars ($100), adjusted biennially to reflect changes in the cost of living, and shall be reimbursed for expenses incurred in performance of their official duties.

1798.199.30. The agency board shall appoint an executive director who shall act in accordance with agency policies and regulations and with applicable law. The agency shall appoint and discharge officers, counsel, and employees, consistent with applicable civil service laws, and shall fix the compensation of employees and prescribe their duties. The agency may contract for services that cannot be provided by its employees.

1798.199.35. The agency board may delegate authority to the chairperson or the executive director to act in the name of the agency between meetings of the agency, except with respect to resolution of enforcement actions and rulemaking authority.

1798.199.40. The agency shall perform the following functions:

(a) Administer, implement, and enforce through administrative actions this title.

(b) On and after the earlier of July 1, 2021, or within six months of the agency providing the Attorney General with notice that it is prepared to assume rulemaking responsibilities under this title, adopt, amend, and rescind regulations pursuant to Section 1798.185 to carry out the purposes and provisions of the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, including regulations specifying record keeping requirements for businesses to ensure compliance with this title.

(c) Through the implementation of this title, protect the fundamental privacy rights of natural persons with respect to the use of their personal information.

(d) Promote public awareness and understanding of the risks, rules, responsibilities, safeguards, and rights in relation to the collection, use, sale, and disclosure of personal information, including the rights of minors with respect to their own information, and provide a public report summarizing the risk assessments filed with the agency pursuant to paragraph (15) of subdivision (a) of Section 1798.185 while ensuring that data security is not compromised.

(e) Provide guidance to consumers regarding their rights under this title.

(f) Provide guidance to businesses regarding their duties and responsibilities under this title and appoint a Chief Privacy Auditor to conduct audits of businesses to ensure compliance with this title pursuant to regulations adopted pursuant to paragraph (18) of subdivision (a) of Section 1798.185.

(g) Provide technical assistance and advice to the Legislature, upon request, with respect to privacy-related legislation.

(h) Monitor relevant developments relating to the protection of personal information and in particular, the development of information and communication technologies and commercial practices.

(i) Cooperate with other agencies with jurisdiction over privacy laws and with data processing authorities in California, other states, territories, and countries to ensure consistent application of privacy protections.

(j) Establish a mechanism pursuant to which persons doing business in California that do not meet the definition of business set forth in paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of subdivision (d) of Section 1798.140 may voluntarily certify that they are in compliance with this title, as set forth in paragraph (4) of subdivision (d) of Section 1798.140, and make a list of those entities available to the public.

(k) Solicit, review, and approve applications for grants to the extent funds are available pursuant to paragraph (2) of subdivision (b) of Section 1798.160.

(l) Perform all other acts necessary or appropriate in the exercise of its power, authority, and jurisdiction and seek to balance the goals of strengthening consumer privacy while giving attention to the impact on businesses.

1798.199.45. (a) Upon the sworn complaint of any person or on its own initiative, the agency may investigate possible violations of this title relating to any business, service provider, contractor, or person. The agency may decide not to investigate a complaint or decide to provide a business with a time period to cure the alleged violation. In making a decision not to investigate or provide more time to cure, the agency may consider the following:

(a) Lack of intent to violate this title.

(b) Voluntary efforts undertaken by the business, service provider, contractor, or person to cure the alleged violation prior to being notified by the agency of the complaint.

The agency shall notify in writing the person who made the complaint of the action, if any, the agency has taken or plans to take on the complaint, together with the reasons for that action or nonaction.

1798.199.50. No finding of probable cause to believe this title has been violated shall be made by the agency unless, at least 30 days prior to the agency’s consideration of the alleged violation, the business, service provider, contractor, or person alleged to have violated this title is notified of the violation by service of process or registered mail with return receipt requested, provided with a summary of the evidence, and informed of their right to be present in person and represented by counsel at any proceeding of the agency held for the purpose of considering whether probable cause exists for believing the person violated this title. Notice to the alleged violator shall be deemed made on the date of service, the date the registered mail receipt is signed, or if the registered mail receipt is not signed, the date returned by the post office. A proceeding held for the purpose of considering probable cause shall be private unless the alleged violator files with the agency a written request that the proceeding be public.

1798.199.55. (a) When the agency determines there is probable cause for believing this title has been violated, it shall hold a hearing to determine if a violation has or violations have occurred. Notice shall be given and the hearing conducted in accordance with the Administrative Procedure Act (Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 11500), Part 1, Division 3, Title 2, Government Code). The agency shall have all the powers granted by that chapter. If the agency determines on the basis of the hearing conducted pursuant to this subdivision that a violation or violations have occurred, it shall issue an order that may require the violator to do all or any of the following:

  • (1) Cease and desist violation of this title.
  • (2) Subject to Section 1798.155, pay an administrative fine of up to two thousand five hundred dollars ($2,500) for each violation, or up to seven thousand five hundred dollars ($7,500) for each intentional violation and each violation involving the personal information of minor consumers to the Consumer Privacy Fund within the General Fund of the state. When the agency determines that no violation has occurred, it shall publish a declaration so stating.

(b) If two or more persons are responsible for any violation or violations, they shall be jointly and severally liable.

1798.199.60. Whenever the agency rejects the decision of an administrative law judge made pursuant to Section 11517 of the Government Code, the agency shall state the reasons in writing for rejecting the decision.

1798.199.65. The agency may subpoena witnesses, compel their attendance and testimony, administer oaths and affirmations, take evidence and require by subpoena the production of any books, papers, records, or other items material to the performance of the agency’s duties or exercise of its powers, including, but not limited to, its power to audit a business’ compliance with this title.

1798.199.70. No administrative action brought pursuant to this title alleging a violation of any of the provisions of this title shall be commenced more than five years after the date on which the violation occurred.

(a) The service of the probable cause hearing notice, as required by Section 1798.199.50, upon the person alleged to have violated this title shall constitute the commencement of the administrative action.

(b) If the person alleged to have violated this title engages in the fraudulent concealment of the person’s acts or identity, the five-year period shall be tolled for the period of the concealment. For purposes of this subdivision, “fraudulent concealment” means the person knows of material facts related to the person’s duties under this title and knowingly conceals them in performing or omitting to perform those duties for the purpose of defrauding the public of information to which it is entitled under this title.

(c) If, upon being ordered by a superior court to produce any documents sought by a subpoena in any administrative proceeding under this title, the person alleged to have violated this title fails to produce documents in response to the order by the date ordered to comply therewith, the five-year period shall be tolled for the period of the delay from the date of filing of the motion to compel until the date the documents are produced.

1798.199.75. (a) In addition to any other available remedies, the agency may bring a civil action and obtain a judgment in superior court for the purpose of collecting any unpaid administrative fines imposed pursuant to this title after exhaustion of judicial review of the agency’s action. The action may be filed as a small claims, limited civil, or unlimited civil case depending on the jurisdictional amount. The venue for this action shall be in the county where the administrative fines were imposed by the agency. In order to obtain a judgment in a proceeding under this section, the agency shall show, following the procedures and rules of evidence as applied in ordinary civil actions, all of the following:

  • (1) That the administrative fines were imposed following the procedures set forth in this title and implementing regulations.
  • (2) That the defendant or defendants in the action were notified, by actual or constructive notice, of the imposition of the administrative fines.
  • (3) That a demand for payment has been made by the agency and full payment has not been received.

(b) A civil action brought pursuant to subdivision (a) shall be commenced within four years after the date on which the administrative fines were imposed.

1798.199.80. (a) If the time for judicial review of a final agency order or decision has lapsed, or if all means of judicial review of the order or decision have been exhausted, the agency may apply to the clerk of the court for a judgment to collect the administrative fines imposed by the order or decision, or the order as modified in accordance with a decision on judicial review.

(b) The application, which shall include a certified copy of the order or decision, or the order as modified in accordance with a decision on judicial review, and proof of service of the order or decision, constitutes a sufficient showing to warrant issuance of the judgment to collect the administrative fines. The clerk of the court shall enter the judgment immediately in conformity with the application.

(c) An application made pursuant to this section shall be made to the clerk of the superior court in the county where the administrative fines were imposed by the agency.

(d) A judgment entered in accordance with this section has the same force and effect as, and is subject to all the provisions of law relating to, a judgment in a civil action and may be enforced in the same manner as any other judgment of the court in which it is entered.

(e) The agency may bring an application pursuant to this section only within four years after the date on which all means of judicial review of the order or decision have been exhausted.

(f) The remedy available under this section is in addition to those available under any other law.

1798.199.85. Any decision of the agency with respect to a complaint or administrative fine shall be subject to judicial review in an action brought by an interested party to the complaint or administrative fine and shall be subject to an abuse of discretion standard.

(a) Any business, service provider, contractor, or other person that violates this title shall be subject to an injunction and liable for a civil penalty of not more than two thousand five hundred dollars ($2,500) for each violation or seven thousand five hundred dollars ($7,500) for each intentional violation and each violation involving the personal information of minor consumers, as adjusted pursuant to paragraph (5) of subdivision (a) of Section 1798.185, which shall be assessed and recovered in a civil action brought in the name of the people of the State of California by the Attorney General. The court may consider the good faith cooperation of the business, service provider, contractor, or other person in determining the amount of the civil penalty.

(b) Any civil penalty recovered by an action brought by the Attorney General for a violation of this title, and the proceeds of any settlement of any said action, shall be deposited in the Consumer Privacy Fund.

(c) The agency shall, upon request by the Attorney General, stay an administrative action or investigation under this title to permit the Attorney General to proceed with an investigation or civil action and shall not pursue an administrative action or investigation, unless the Attorney General subsequently determines not to pursue an investigation or civil action. The agency may not limit the authority of the Attorney General to enforce this title.

(d) No civil action may be filed by the Attorney General under this section for any violation of this title after the agency has issued a decision pursuant to Section 1798.199.85 or an order pursuant to Section 1798.199.55 against that person for the same violation.

(e) This section shall not affect the private right of action provided for in Section 1798.150.

1798.199.95. (a) There is hereby appropriated from the General Fund of the state to the agency the sum of five million dollars ($5,000,000) during the fiscal year 2020–2021, and the sum of ten million dollars ($10,000,000) adjusted for cost-of-living changes, during each fiscal year thereafter, for expenditure to support the operations of the agency pursuant to this title. The expenditure of funds under this appropriation shall be subject to the normal administrative review given to other state appropriations. The Legislature shall appropriate those additional amounts to the commission and other agencies as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this title.

(b) The Department of Finance, in preparing the state budget and the Budget Act bill submitted to the Legislature, shall include an item for the support of this title that shall indicate all of the following:

  • (1) The amounts to be appropriated to other agencies to carry out their duties under this title, which amounts shall be in augmentation of the support items of those agencies.
  • (2) The additional amounts required to be appropriated by the Legislature to the agency to carry out the purposes of this title, as provided for in this section.
  • (3) In parentheses, for informational purposes, the continuing appropriation during each fiscal year of ten million dollars ($10,000,000), adjusted for cost-of-living changes made pursuant to this section.

(c) The Attorney General shall provide staff support to the agency until the agency has hired its own staff. The Attorney General shall be reimbursed by the agency for these services.

1798.199.100. The agency and any court, as applicable, shall consider the good faith cooperation of the business, service provider, contractor, or other person in determining the amount of any administrative fine or civil penalty for a violation of this title. A business shall not be required by the agency, a court, or otherwise to pay both an administrative fine and a civil penalty for the same violation.

(a) The provisions of this act may be amended after its approval by the voters by a statute that is passed by a vote of a majority of the members of each house of the Legislature and signed by the Governor, provided that those amendments are consistent with and further the purpose and intent of this act as set forth in Section 3, including amendments to the exemptions in Section 1798.145 if the laws upon which the exemptions are based are amended to enhance privacy and are consistent with and further the purposes and intent of this act and amendments to address a decision of a state or federal court holding that a provision of the act is unconstitutional or preempted by federal law, provided that any further amendments to legislation that addresses a court holding shall be subject to this subdivision.

(b) Notwithstanding Section 1798.199.25, the Legislature may authorize additional compensation for members of the California Consumer Privacy Agency, if it determines that it is necessary to carry out the agency’s functions, by a statute that is passed by a vote of a majority of the members of each house of the Legislature and signed by the Governor.

(c) This section applies to all statutes amended or reenacted as part of this act, and all provisions of those statutes, regardless of whether this act makes any substantive change thereto.

(d) The provisions of this act shall prevail over any conflicting legislation enacted after January 1, 2020. Any amendments to this act or any legislation that conflicts with any provision of this act shall be null and void upon passage of this act by the voters, regardless of the code in which it appears. Legislation shall be considered “conflicting” for purposes of this subdivision, unless the legislation is consistent with and furthers the purpose and intent of this act as set forth in Section 3.

If any provision of this measure, or part of this measure, or the application of any provision or part to any person or circumstances, is for any reason held to be invalid, the remaining provisions, or applications of provisions, shall not be affected, but shall remain in full force and effect, and to this end the provisions of this measure are severable. If a court were to find in a final, unreviewable judgment that the exclusion of one or more entities or activities from the applicability of the act renders the act unconstitutional, those exceptions should be severed and the act should be made applicable to the entities or activities formerly exempt from the act. It is the intent of the voters that this act would have been enacted regardless of whether any invalid provision had been included or any invalid application had been made.

(a) In the event that this measure and another measure addressing consumer privacy shall appear on the same statewide ballot, the provisions of the other measure or measures shall be deemed to be in conflict with this measure. In the event that this measure receives a greater number of affirmative votes than a measure deemed to be in conflict with it, the provisions of this measure shall prevail in their entirety, and the other measure or measures shall be null and void.

(b) If this measure is approved by the voters but superseded by law by any other conflicting measure approved by voters at the same election, and the conflicting ballot measure is later held invalid, this measure shall be self-executing and given full force and effect.

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, if the state or any of its officials fail to defend the constitutionality of this act, following its approval by the voters, any other government agency of this state shall have the authority to intervene in any court action challenging the constitutionality of this act for the purpose of defending its constitutionality, whether that action is in state or federal trial court, on appeal, or on discretionary review by the Supreme Court of California or the Supreme Court of the United States. The reasonable fees and costs of defending the action shall be a charge on funds appropriated to the Department of Justice, which shall be satisfied promptly.

This act shall be liberally construed to effectuate its purposes.

This act is intended to supplement federal and state law, where permissible, but shall not apply if that application is preempted by, or in conflict with, federal law, or the California Constitution. The provisions of the act relating to children under 16 years of age shall only apply to the extent not in conflict with the federal Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act.

(a) This act shall become effective as provided in subdivision (a) of Section 10 of Article II of the California Constitution. Except as provided in subdivision (b), this act shall become operative January 1, 2023, and with the exception of the right of access, shall only apply to personal information collected by a business on or after January 1, 2022.

(b) Subdivisions (m) and (n) of Section 1798.145, Sections 1798.160, 1798.185, Sections 1798.199.10 through 1798.199.40, inclusive, and Section 1798.199.95 shall become operative on the effective date of the act.

(c) The provisions of the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, amended by this act, shall remain in full force and effect and shall be enforceable until the same provisions of this act become operative and enforceable.