Below is annotated text of the California Privacy Rights Act (CPRA) of 2020. This text does NOT include changes from the text of the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) that was approved by voters with the passage of Proposition 24. Annotations can be viewed on a PC or Mac by hovering over highlighted blue text or by tapping highlighted blue text on a mobile device. This Resource Center includes other versions of the text of the CPRA:
This measure shall be known, and may be cited, as the “California Privacy Rights Act of 2020.”
The people of the State of California hereby find and declare all of the following:
(A) In 1972, California voters amended the California Constitution to include the right of privacy among the “inalienable” rights of all people. Voters acted in response to the accelerating encroachment on personal freedom and security caused by increased data collection and usage in contemporary society. The amendment established a legal and enforceable constitutional right of privacy for every Californian. Fundamental to this right of privacy is the ability of individuals to control the use, including the sale, of their personal information.
(B) Since California voters approved the constitutional right of privacy, the California Legislature has adopted specific mechanisms to safeguard Californians’ privacy, including the Online Privacy Protection Act, the Privacy Rights for California Minors in the Digital World Act, and Shine the Light, but consumers had no right to learn what personal information a business had collected about them and how they used it or to direct businesses not to sell the consumer’s personal information.
(C) That changed in 2018, when more than 629,000 California voters signed petitions to qualify the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 for the ballot. In response to the measure’s qualification, the Legislature enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (CCPA) into law. The CCPA gives California consumers the right to learn what information a business has collected about them, to delete their personal information, to stop businesses from selling their personal information, including using it to target them with ads that follow them as they browse the internet from one website to another, and to hold businesses accountable if they do not take reasonable steps to safeguard their personal information.
(D) Even before the CCPA had gone into effect, the Legislature considered many bills in 2019 to amend the law, some of which would have significantly weakened it. Unless California voters take action, the hard-fought rights consumers have won could be undermined by future legislation.
(E) Rather than diluting privacy rights, California should strengthen them over time. Many businesses collect and use consumers’ personal information, sometimes without consumers’ knowledge regarding the business’s use and retention of their personal information. In practice, consumers are often entering into a form of contractual arrangement in which, while they do not pay money for a good or service, they exchange access to that good or service in return for access to their attention or access to their personal information. Because the value of the personal information they are exchanging for the good or service is often opaque, depending on the practices of the business, consumers often have no good way to value the transaction. In addition, the terms of agreement or policies in which the arrangements are spelled out, are often complex and unclear, and as a result, most consumers never have the time to read or understand them.
(F) This asymmetry of information makes it difficult for consumers to understand what they are exchanging and therefore to negotiate effectively with businesses. Unlike in other areas of the economy where consumers can comparison shop, or can understand at a glance if a good or service is expensive or affordable, it is hard for the consumer to know how much the consumers information is worth to any given business, when data use practices vary so widely between businesses.
(H) Consumers need stronger laws to place them on a more equal footing when negotiating with businesses in order to protect their rights. Consumers should be entitled to a clear explanation of the uses of their personal information, including how it is used for advertising, and to control, correct, or delete it, including by allowing consumers to limit businesses’ use of their sensitive personal information to help guard against identity theft, to opt-out of the sale and sharing of their personal information, and to request that businesses correct inaccurate information about them.
(I) California is the world leader in many new technologies that have reshaped our society. The world today is unimaginable without the internet, one of the most momentous inventions in human history, and the new services and businesses that arose on top of it, many of which were invented here in California. One of the most successful business models for the internet has been services that rely on advertising to make money as opposed to charging consumers a fee. Advertising-supported services have existed for generations and can be a great model for consumers and businesses alike. However, some advertising businesses today use technologies and tools that are opaque to consumers to collect and trade vast amounts of personal information, to track them across the internet, and to create detailed profiles of their individual interests. Some companies that do not charge consumers a fee, subsidize these services by monetizing consumers’ personal information. Consumers should have the information and tools necessary to limit the use of their information to noninvasive proprivacy advertising, where their personal information is not sold to or shared with hundreds of businesses they’ve never heard of, if they choose to do so. Absent these tools, it will be virtually impossible for consumers to fully understand these contracts they are essentially entering into when they interact with various businesses.
(J) Children are particularly vulnerable from a negotiating perspective with respect to their privacy rights. Parents should be able to control what information is collected and sold or shared about their young children and should be given the right to demand that companies erase information collected about their children.
(L) An independent watchdog whose mission is to protect consumer privacy should ensure that businesses and consumers are well-informed about their rights and obligations and should vigorously enforce the law against businesses that violate consumers’ privacy rights.
In enacting this Act, it is the purpose and intent of the people of the State of California to further protect consumers’ rights, including the constitutional right of privacy. The implementation of this Act shall be guided by the following principles:
(C) Implementation of the Law
(b) A business that, acting as a third party, controls the collection of personal information about a consumer may satisfy its obligation under subdivision (a) by providing the required information prominently and conspicuously on the homepage of its internet website. In addition, if a business, acting as a third party, controls the collection of personal information about a consumer on its premises, including in a vehicle, then the business shall, at or before the point of collection, inform consumers as to the categories of personal information to be collected and the purposes for which the categories of personal information are used, and whether such personal information is sold, in a clear and conspicuous manner at such location.
(c) A business’s collection, use, retention, and sharing of a consumer’s personal information shall be reasonably necessary and proportionate to achieve the purposes for which the personal information was collected or processed, or for another disclosed purpose that is compatible with the context in which the personal information was collected, and not further processed in a manner that is incompatible with those purposes.
(d) A business that collects a consumer’s personal information and that sells that personal information to, or shares it with, a third party or that discloses it to a service provider or contractor for a business purpose shall enter into an agreement with such third party, service provider, or contractor, that:
(e) A business that collects a consumer’s personal information shall implement reasonable security procedures and practices appropriate to the nature of the personal information to protect the personal information from unauthorized or illegal access, destruction, use, modification, or disclosure in accordance with Section 1798.81.5.
(d) A business, or a service provider or contractor, acting pursuant to its contract with the business, another service provider, or another contractor, shall not be required to comply with a consumer’s request to delete the consumer’s personal information if it is reasonably necessary for the business, service provider, or contractor to maintain the consumer’s personal information in order to:
(a) A consumer shall have the right to request a business that maintains inaccurate personal information about the consumer correct such inaccurate personal information, taking into account the nature of the personal information and the purposes of the processing of the personal information.
(c) A business that receives a verifiable consumer request to correct inaccurate personal information shall use commercially reasonable efforts to correct the inaccurate personal information, as directed by the consumer, pursuant to Section 1798.130 and regulations adopted pursuant to paragraph (8) of subdivision (a) of Section 1798.185.
(b) A business that collects personal information about a consumer shall disclose to the consumer, pursuant to subparagraph (B) of paragraph (3) of subdivision (a) of Section 1798.130, the information specified in subdivision (a) upon receipt of a verifiable consumer request from the consumer, provided that a business shall be deemed to be in compliance with paragraphs (1) through (4) of subdivision (a) of this Section to the extent that the categories of information and the business or commercial purpose for collecting or selling or sharing personal information it would be required to disclose to the consumer pursuant to paragraphs (1) through (4) of subdivision (a) is the same as the information it has disclosed pursuant to paragraphs (1) to (4), inclusive, of subdivision (c).
(b) A business that sells or shares personal information about a consumer, or that discloses a consumer’s personal information for a business purpose, shall disclose, pursuant to paragraph (4) of subdivision (a) of Section 1798.130, the information specified in subdivision (a) to the consumer upon receipt of a verifiable consumer request from the consumer.
(c) A business that sells or shares consumers’ personal information, or that discloses consumers’ personal information for a business purpose, shall disclose, pursuant to subparagraph (C) of paragraph (5) of subdivision (a) of Section 1798.130:
(d) A third party shall not sell or share personal information about a consumer that has been sold to, or shared with, the third party by a business unless the consumer has received explicit notice and is provided an opportunity to exercise the right to opt‐out pursuant to Section 1798.120.
(a) A consumer shall have the right, at any time, to direct a business that sells or shares personal information about the consumer to third parties not to sell or share the consumer’s personal information. This right may be referred to as the right to opt‐out of sale or sharing.
(b) A business that sells consumers’ personal information to, or shares it with, third parties shall provide notice to consumers, pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 1798.135, that this information may be sold or shared and that consumers have the “right to opt‐out” of the sale or sharing of their personal information.
(c) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), a business shall not sell or share the personal information of consumers if the business has actual knowledge that the consumer is less than 16 years of age, unless the consumer, in the case of consumers at least 13 years of age and less than 16 years of age, or the consumer’s parent or guardian, in the case of consumers who are less than 13 years of age, has affirmatively authorized the sale or sharing of the consumer’s personal information. A business that willfully disregards the consumer’s age shall be deemed to have had actual knowledge of the consumer’s age.
(d) A business that has received direction from a consumer not to sell or share the consumer’s personal information or, in the case of a minor consumer’s personal information has not received consent to sell or share the minor consumer’s personal information, shall be prohibited, pursuant to paragraph (4) of subdivision (c) of Section 1798.135, from selling or sharing the consumer’s personal information after its receipt of the consumer’s direction, unless the consumer subsequently provides consent, for the sale or sharing of the consumer’s personal information.
(a) A consumer shall have the right, at any time, to direct a business that collects sensitive personal information about the consumer to limit its use of the consumer’s sensitive personal information to that use which is necessary to perform the services or provide thegoods reasonably expected by an average consumer who requests such goods or services, to perform the services set forth in paragraphs (2), (4), (5), and (8) of subdivision (e) of Section 1798.140, and as authorized by regulations adopted pursuant to subparagraph (C) of paragraph (19) of subdivision (a) of Section 1798.185. A business that uses or discloses a consumer’s sensitive personal information for purposes other than those specified in this subdivision shall provide notice to consumers, pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 1798.135, that this information may be used, or disclosed to a service provider or contractor, for additional, specified purposes and that consumers have the right to limit the use or disclosure of their sensitive personal information.
(b) A business that has received direction from a consumer not to use or disclose the consumer’s sensitive personal information, except as authorized by subdivision (a), shall be prohibited, pursuant to paragraph (4) of subdivision (c) of Section 1798.135, from using or disclosing the consumer’s sensitive personal information for any other purpose after its receipt of the consumer’s direction, unless the consumer subsequently provides consent for the use or disclosure of the consumer’s sensitive personal information for additional purposes.
(c) A service provider or contractor that assists a business in performing the purposes authorized by subdivision (a) may not use the sensitive personal information, after it has received instructions from the business and to the extent it has actual knowledge that the personal information is sensitive personal information for any other purpose. A service provider or contractor is only required to limit its use of sensitive personal information received pursuant to a written contract with the business in response to instructions from the business and only with respect to its relationship with that business.
(d) Sensitive Personal information that is collected or processed without the purpose of inferring characteristics about a consumer, is not subject to this Section, as further defined in regulations adopted pursuant to subparagraph (C) of paragraph (19) of subdivision (a) of Section 1798.185, and shall be treated as personal information for purposes of all other sections of this Act, including Section 1798.100.
(c) The categories of personal information required to be disclosed pursuant to Sections 1798.100, 1798.110 and 1798.115 shall follow the definitions of personal information and sensitive personal information in Section 1798.140 by describing the categories of personal information using the specific terms set forth in subparagraphs (A) through (K) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (v) of Section 1798.140 and by describing the categories of sensitive personal information using the specific terms set forth in paragraphs (1) through (9) of subdivision (ae) of Section 1798.140.
(a) A business that sells or shares consumers’ personal information or uses or discloses consumers’ sensitive personal information for purposes other than those authorized by subdivision (a) of Section 1798.121 shall, in a form that is reasonably accessible to consumers:
(d) Nothing in this title shall be construed to require a business to comply with the title by including the required links and text on the homepage that the business makes available to the public generally, if the business maintains a separate and additional homepage that is dedicated to California consumers and that includes the required links and text, and the business takes reasonable steps to ensure that California consumers are directed to the homepage for California consumers and not the homepage made available to the public generally.
(e) A consumer may authorize another person to opt-out of the sale or sharing of the consumer’s personal information and to limit the use of the consumer’s sensitive personal information on the consumer’s behalf, including through an opt-out preference signal, as defined in paragraph (1) of subdivision (b), indicating the consumer’s intent to opt out, and a business shall comply with an opt-out request received from a person authorized by the consumer to act on the consumer’s behalf, pursuant to regulations adopted by the Attorney General regardless of whether the business has elected to comply with subdivision (a) or (b). For purposes of clarity, a business that elects to comply with subdivision (a) may respond to the consumer’s opt-out consistent with Section 1798.125.
(f) If a business communicates a consumer’s opt-out request to any person authorized by the business to collect personal information, the person shall thereafter only use that consumer’s personal information for a business purpose specified by the business, or as otherwise permitted by this title, and shall be prohibited from:
(g) A business that communicates a consumer’s opt-out request to a person pursuant to subdivision (f) shall not be liable under this title if the person receiving the opt-out request violates the restrictions set forth in the title provided that, at the time of communicating the opt-out request, the business does not have actual knowledge, or reason to believe, that the person intends to commit such a violation. Any provision of a contract or agreement of any kind that purports to waive or limit in any way this subdivision shall be void and unenforceable.
For purposes of this title:
(b) “Aggregate consumer information” means information that relates to a group or category of consumers, from which individual consumer identities have been removed, that is not linked or reasonably linkable to any consumer or household, including via a device. “Aggregate consumer information” does not mean one or more individual consumer records that have been deidentified.
(c) “Biometric information” means an individual’s physiological, biological or behavioral characteristics, including information pertaining to an individual’s deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), that is used or is intended to be used, singly or in combination with each other or with other identifying data, to establish individual identity. Biometric information includes, but is not limited to, imagery of the iris, retina, fingerprint, face, hand, palm, vein patterns, and voice recordings, from which an identifier template, such as a faceprint, a minutiae template, or a voiceprint, can be extracted, and keystroke patterns or rhythms, gait patterns or rhythms, and sleep, health, or exercise data that contain identifying information.
(e) “Business purpose” means the use of personal information for the business’s operational purposes, or other notified purposes, or for the service provider or contractor’s operational purposes, as defined by regulations adopted pursuant to paragraph (11) of subdivision (a) of Section 1798.185, provided that the use of personal information shall be reasonably necessary and proportionate to achieve the purpose for which the personal information was collected or processed or for another purpose that is compatible with the context in which the personal information was collected. Business purposes are:
(f) “Collects,” “collected,” or “collection” means buying, renting, gathering, obtaining, receiving, or accessing any personal information pertaining to a consumer by any means. This includes receiving information from the consumer, either actively or passively, or by observing the consumer’s behavior.
(g) “Commercial purposes” means to advance a person’s commercial or economic interests, such as by inducing another person to buy, rent, lease, join, subscribe to, provide, or exchange products, goods, property, information, or services, or enabling or effecting, directly or indirectly, a commercial transaction.
(i) “Consumer” means a natural person who is a California resident, as defined in Section 17014 of Title 18 of the California Code of Regulations, as that section read on September 1, 2017, however identified, including by any unique identifier.
(k) “Cross-context behavioral advertising” means the targeting of advertising to a consumer based on the consumer’s personal information obtained from the consumer’s activity across businesses, distinctly-branded websites, applications, or services, other than the business, distinctly-branded website, application, or service with which the consumer intentionally interacts.
(m) “Deidentified” means information that cannot reasonably be used to infer information about, or otherwise be linked to, a particular consumer provided that the business that possesses the information:
(n) “Designated methods for submitting requests” means a mailing address, email address, internet web page, internet web portal, toll-free telephone number, or other applicable contact information, whereby consumers may submit a request or direction under this title, and any new, consumer-friendly means of contacting a business, as approved by the Attorney General pursuant to Section 1798.185.
(p) “Homepage” means the introductory page of an internet website and any internet web page where personal information is collected. In the case of an online service, such as a mobile application, homepage means the application’s platform page or download page, a link within the application, such as from the application configuration, “About,” “Information,’’ or settings page, and any other location that allows consumers to review the notices required by this title, including, but not limited to, before downloading the application.
(s) “Intentionally interacts“ means when the consumer intends to interact with a person, or disclose personal information to a person, via one or more deliberate interactions, including visiting the person’s website or purchasing a good or service from the person. Hovering over, muting, pausing, or closing a given piece of content does not constitute a consumer’s intent to interact with a person.
(t) “Nonpersonalized advertising” means advertising and marketing that is based solely on a consumer’s personal information derived from the consumer’s current interaction with the business with the exception of the consumer’s precise geolocation.
(u) “Person” means an individual, proprietorship, firm, partnership, joint venture, syndicate, business trust, company, corporation, limited liability company, association, committee, and any other organization or group of persons acting in concert.
(w) “Precise geolocation” means any data that is derived from a device and that is used or intended to be used to locate a consumer within a geographic area that is equal to or less than the area of a circle with a radius of 1,850 feet, except as prescribed by regulations.
(x) “Probabilistic identifier” means the identification of a consumer or a consumer’s device to a degree of certainty of more probable than not based on any categories of personal information included in, or similar to, the categories enumerated in the definition of personal information.
(z) “Profiling” means any form of automated processing of personal information, as further defined by regulations pursuant to paragraph (16) of subdivision (a) of Section 1798.185, to evaluate certain personal aspects relating to a natural person and in particular to analyze or predict aspects concerning that natural person’s performance at work, economic situation, health, personal preferences, interests, reliability, behavior, location, or movements.
(aa) “Pseudonymize” or “Pseudonymization” means the processing of personal information in a manner that renders the personal information no longer attributable to a specific consumer without the use of additional information, provided that the additional information is kept separately and is subject to technical and organizational measures to ensure that the personal information is not attributed to an identified or identifiable consumer.
(ab) “Research” means scientific analysis, systematic study and observation, including basic research or applied research that is designed to develop or contribute to public or scientific knowledge and that adheres or otherwise conforms to all other applicable ethics and privacy laws, including, but not limited to, studies conducted in the public interest in the area of public health. Research with personal information that may have been collected from a consumer in the course of the consumer’s interactions with a business’s service or device for other purposes shall be:
(aj) “Unique identifier” or “Unique personal identifier” means a persistent identifier that can be used to recognize a consumer, a family, or a device that is linked to a consumer or family, over time and across different services, including, but not limited to, a device identifier; an Internet Protocol address; cookies, beacons, pixel tags, mobile ad identifiers, or similar technology; customer number, unique pseudonym, or user alias; telephone numbers, or other forms of persistent or probabilistic identifiers that can be used to identify a particular consumer or device that is linked to a consumer or family. For purposes of this subdivision, “family” means a custodial parent or guardian and any children under 18 years of age over which the parent or guardian has custody.
(ak) “Verifiable consumer request” means a request that is made by a consumer, by a consumer on behalf of the consumer’s minor child, by a natural person or a person registered with the Secretary of State, authorized by the consumer to act on the consumer’s behalf, or by a person who has power of attorney or is acting as a conservator for the consumer, and that the business can verify, using commercially reasonable methods, pursuant to regulations adopted by the Attorney General pursuant to paragraph (7) of subdivision (a) of Section 1798.185 to be the consumer about whom the business has collected personal information. A business is not obligated to provide information to the consumer pursuant to Sections 1798.110 and 1798.115, to delete personal information pursuant to Section 1798.105, or to correct inaccurate personal information pursuant to Section 1798.106, if the business cannot verify, pursuant to this subdivision and regulations adopted by the Attorney General pursuant to paragraph (7) of subdivision (a) of Section 1798.185, that the consumer making the request is the consumer about whom the business has collected information or is a person authorized by the consumer to act on such consumer’s behalf.
(b) The obligations imposed on businesses by Sections 1798.110, 1798.115, 1798.120, 1798.121, 1798.130, and 1798.135, shall not apply where compliance by the business with the title would violate an evidentiary privilege under California law and shall not prevent a business from providing the personal information of a consumer to a person covered by an evidentiary privilege under California law as part of a privileged communication.
(e) This title shall not apply to personal information collected, processed, sold, or disclosed subject to the federal Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (Public Law 106-102), and implementing regulations, or the California Financial Information Privacy Act (Division 1.4 (commencing with Section 4050) of the Financial Code), or the federal Farm Credit Act of 1971 (as amended in 12 U.S.C. 2001-2279cc and implementing regulations, 12 C.F.R. 600, et seq.). This subdivision shall not apply to Section 1798.150.
(f) This title shall not apply to personal information collected, processed, sold, or disclosed pursuant to the Driver’s Privacy Protection Act of 1994 (18 U.S.C. Sec. 2721 et seq.). This subdivision shall not apply to Section 1798.150.
(k) The rights afforded to consumers and the obligations imposed on the business in this title shall not adversely affect the rights and freedoms of other natural persons. A verifiable consumer request for specific pieces of personal information pursuant to Section 1798.110, to delete a consumer’s personal information pursuant to Section 1798.105, or to correct inaccurate personal information pursuant to Section 1798.106, shall not extend to personal information about the consumer that belongs to, or the business maintains on behalf of, another natural person. A business may rely on representations made in a verifiable consumer request as to rights with respect to personal information and is under no legal requirement to seek out other persons that may have or claim to have rights to personal information, and a business is under no legal obligation under this title or any other provision of law to take any action under this title in the event of a dispute between or among persons claiming rights to personal information in the business’ possession.
(l) The rights afforded to consumers and the obligations imposed on any business under this title shall not apply to the extent that they infringe on the noncommercial activities of a person or entity described in subdivision (b) of Section 2 of Article I of the California Constitution.
(r) Sections 1798.105 and 1798.120 shall not apply to a business’ use, disclosure, or sale of particular pieces of a consumer’s personal information if the consumer has consented to the business’ use, disclosure, or sale of that information to produce a physical item, including a school yearbook containing the consumer’s photograph if:
(b) Actions pursuant to this section may be brought by a consumer if, prior to initiating any action against a business for statutory damages on an individual or class-wide basis, a consumer provides a business 30 days’ written notice identifying the specific provisions of this title the consumer alleges have been or are being violated. In the event a cure is possible, if within the 30 days the business actually cures the noticed violation and provides the consumer an express written statement that the violations have been cured and that no further violations shall occur, no action for individual statutory damages or class- wide statutory damages may be initiated against the business. The implementation and maintenance of reasonable security procedures and practices pursuant to Section 1798.81.5 following a breach does not constitute a cure with respect to that breach. No notice shall be required prior to an individual consumer initiating an action solely for actual pecuniary damages suffered as a result of the alleged violations of this title. If a business continues to violate this title in breach of the express written statement provided to the consumer under this section, the consumer may initiate an action against the business to enforce the written statement and may pursue statutory damages for each breach of the express written statement, as well as any other violation of the title that postdates the written statement.
(c) The cause of action established by this section shall apply only to violations as defined in subdivision (a) and shall not be based on violations of any other section of this title. Nothing in this title shall be interpreted to serve as the basis for a private right of action under any other law. This shall not be construed to relieve any party from any duties or obligations imposed under other law or the United States or California Constitution.
(a) Any business, service provider, contractor, or other person that violates this title shall be liable for an administrative fine of not more than two thousand five hundred dollars ($2,500) for each violation or seven thousand five hundred dollars ($7,500) for each intentional violation or violations involving the personal information of consumers whom the business, service provider, contractor, or other person has actual knowledge are under 16 years of age, as adjusted pursuant to paragraph (5) of subdivision (a) of Section 1798.185, in an administrative enforcement action brought by the California Privacy Protection Agency.
(b) Any administrative fine assessed for a violation of this title, and the proceeds of any settlement of an action brought pursuant to subdivision (a), shall be deposited in the Consumer Privacy Fund, created within the General Fund pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section 1798.160 with the intent to fully offset any costs incurred by the state courts, the Attorney General, and the California Privacy Protection Agency in connection with this title.
(a) A special fund to be known as the “Consumer Privacy Fund” is hereby created within the General Fund in the State Treasury, and is available upon appropriation by the Legislature first to offset any costs incurred by the state courts in connection with actions brought to enforce this title, the costs incurred by the Attorney General in carrying out the Attorney General’s duties under this title, and then for the purposes of establishing an investment fund in the State Treasury, with any earnings or interest from the fund to be deposited in the General Fund, and making grants to promote and protect consumer privacy, educate children in the area of online privacy, and fund cooperative programs with international law enforcement organizations to combat fraudulent activities with respect to consumer data breaches.
This title is intended to further the constitutional right of privacy and to supplement existing laws relating to consumers’ personal information, including, but not limited to, Chapter 22 (commencing with Section 22575) of Division 8 of the Business and Professions Code and Title 1.81 (commencing with Section 1798.80). The provisions of this title are not limited to information collected electronically or over the Internet, but apply to the collection and sale of all personal information collected by a business from consumers. Wherever possible, law relating to consumers’ personal information should be construed to harmonize with the provisions of this title, but in the event of a conflict between other laws and the provisions of this title, the provisions of the law that afford the greatest protection for the right of privacy for consumers shall control
(a) On or before July 1, 2020, the Attorney General shall solicit broad public participation and adopt regulations to further the purposes of this title, including, but not limited to, the following areas:
(b) The Attorney General may adopt additional regulations as necessary to further the purposes of this title.
(c) The Attorney General shall not bring an enforcement action under this title until six months after the publication of the final regulations issued pursuant to this section or July 1, 2020, whichever is sooner.
(d) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), the timeline for adopting final regulations required by the act adding this subdivision shall be July 1, 2022. Beginning the later of July 1, 2021, or six months after the agency provides notice to the Attorney General that it is prepared to begin rulemaking under this title, the authority assigned to the Attorney General to adopt regulations under this section shall be exercised by the California Privacy Protection Agency. Notwithstanding any other law, civil and administrative enforcement of the provisions of law added or amended by this act shall not commence until July 1, 2023, and shall only apply to violations occurring on or after that date. Enforcement of provisions of law contained in the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 amended by this act shall remain in effect and shall be enforceable until the same provisions of this act become enforceable.
A court or the agency shall disregard the intermediate steps or transactions for purposes of effectuating the purposes of this title:
(a) If a series of steps or transactions were component parts of a single transaction intended from the beginning to be taken with the intention of avoiding the reach of this title, including the disclosure of information by a business to a third party in order to avoid the definition of sell, or share.
(b) If steps or transactions were taken to purposely avoid the definition of sell or share by eliminating any monetary or other valuable consideration, including by entering into contracts that do not include an exchange for monetary or other valuable consideration, but where a party is obtaining something of value or use
Any provision of a contract or agreement of any kind, including a representative action waiver, that purports to waive or limit in any way rights under this title, including, but not limited to, any right to a remedy or means of enforcement, shall be deemed contrary to public policy and shall be void and unenforceable. This section shall not prevent a consumer from declining to request information from a business, declining to opt out of a business’s sale of the consumer’s personal information, or authorizing a business to sell or share the consumer’s personal information after previously opting out.
1798.199.10. (a) There is hereby established in state government the California Privacy Protection Agency, which is vested with full administrative power, authority, and jurisdiction to implement and enforce the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018. The agency shall be governed by a five-member board, including the chairperson. The chairperson and one member of the board shall be appointed by the Governor. The Attorney General, Senate Rules Committee, and Speaker of the Assembly shall each appoint one member. These appointments should be made from among Californians with expertise in the areas of privacy, technology, and consumer rights.
(b) The initial appointments to the agency shall be made within 90 days of the effective date of the act adding this section.
1798.199.15. Members of the agency board shall:
(a) Have qualifications, experience, and skills, in particular in the areas of privacy and technology, required to perform the duties of the agency and exercise its powers.
(b) Maintain the confidentiality of information which has come to their knowledge in the course of the performance of their tasks or exercise of their powers, except to the extent that disclosure is required by the Public Records Act.
(c) Remain free from external influence, whether direct or indirect, and shall neither seek nor take instructions from another.
(d) Refrain from any action incompatible with their duties and engaging in any incompatible occupation, whether gainful or not, during their term.
(e) Have the right of access to all information made available by the agency to the chairperson.
(f) Be precluded, for a period of one year after leaving office, from accepting employment with a business that was subject to an enforcement action or civil action under this title during the member’s tenure or during the five-year period preceding the member’s appointment.
(g) Be precluded for a period of two years after leaving office from acting, for compensation, as an agent or attorney for, or otherwise representing, any other person in a matter pending before the agency if the purpose is to influence an action of the agency.
1798.199.20. Members of the agency board, including the chairperson, shall serve at the pleasure of their appointing authority but shall serve for no longer than eight consecutive years.
1798.199.25. For each day on which they engage in official duties, members of the agency board shall be compensated at the rate of one hundred dollars ($100), adjusted biennially to reflect changes in the cost of living, and shall be reimbursed for expenses incurred in performance of their official duties.
1798.199.30. The agency board shall appoint an executive director who shall act in accordance with agency policies and regulations and with applicable law. The agency shall appoint and discharge officers, counsel, and employees, consistent with applicable civil service laws, and shall fix the compensation of employees and prescribe their duties. The agency may contract for services that cannot be provided by its employees.
1798.199.35. The agency board may delegate authority to the chairperson or the executive director to act in the name of the agency between meetings of the agency, except with respect to resolution of enforcement actions and rulemaking authority.
1798.199.40. The agency shall perform the following functions:
(a) Administer, implement, and enforce through administrative actions this title.
(b) On and after the earlier of July 1, 2021, or within six months of the agency providing the Attorney General with notice that it is prepared to assume rulemaking responsibilities under this title, adopt, amend, and rescind regulations pursuant to Section 1798.185 to carry out the purposes and provisions of the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, including regulations specifying record keeping requirements for businesses to ensure compliance with this title.
(d) Promote public awareness and understanding of the risks, rules, responsibilities, safeguards, and rights in relation to the collection, use, sale, and disclosure of personal information, including the rights of minors with respect to their own information, and provide a public report summarizing the risk assessments filed with the agency pursuant to paragraph (15) of subdivision (a) of Section 1798.185 while ensuring that data security is not compromised.
(f) Provide guidance to businesses regarding their duties and responsibilities under this title and appoint a Chief Privacy Auditor to conduct audits of businesses to ensure compliance with this title pursuant to regulations adopted pursuant to paragraph (18) of subdivision (a) of Section 1798.185.
(g) Provide technical assistance and advice to the Legislature, upon request, with respect to privacy-related legislation.
(h) Monitor relevant developments relating to the protection of personal information and in particular, the development of information and communication technologies and commercial practices.
(i) Cooperate with other agencies with jurisdiction over privacy laws and with data processing authorities in California, other states, territories, and countries to ensure consistent application of privacy protections.
(j) Establish a mechanism pursuant to which persons doing business in California that do not meet the definition of business set forth in paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of subdivision (d) of Section 1798.140 may voluntarily certify that they are in compliance with this title, as set forth in paragraph (4) of subdivision (d) of Section 1798.140, and make a list of those entities available to the public.
(l) Perform all other acts necessary or appropriate in the exercise of its power, authority, and jurisdiction and seek to balance the goals of strengthening consumer privacy while giving attention to the impact on businesses.
1798.199.45. (a) Upon the sworn complaint of any person or on its own initiative, the agency may investigate possible violations of this title relating to any business, service provider, contractor, or person. The agency may decide not to investigate a complaint or decide to provide a business with a time period to cure the alleged violation. In making a decision not to investigate or provide more time to cure, the agency may consider the following:
(a) Lack of intent to violate this title.
The agency shall notify in writing the person who made the complaint of the action, if any, the agency has taken or plans to take on the complaint, together with the reasons for that action or nonaction.
1798.199.50. No finding of probable cause to believe this title has been violated shall be made by the agency unless, at least 30 days prior to the agency’s consideration of the alleged violation, the business, service provider, contractor, or person alleged to have violated this title is notified of the violation by service of process or registered mail with return receipt requested, provided with a summary of the evidence, and informed of their right to be present in person and represented by counsel at any proceeding of the agency held for the purpose of considering whether probable cause exists for believing the person violated this title. Notice to the alleged violator shall be deemed made on the date of service, the date the registered mail receipt is signed, or if the registered mail receipt is not signed, the date returned by the post office. A proceeding held for the purpose of considering probable cause shall be private unless the alleged violator files with the agency a written request that the proceeding be public.
1798.199.55. (a) When the agency determines there is probable cause for believing this title has been violated, it shall hold a hearing to determine if a violation has or violations have occurred. Notice shall be given and the hearing conducted in accordance with the Administrative Procedure Act (Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 11500), Part 1, Division 3, Title 2, Government Code). The agency shall have all the powers granted by that chapter. If the agency determines on the basis of the hearing conducted pursuant to this subdivision that a violation or violations have occurred, it shall issue an order that may require the violator to do all or any of the following:
1798.199.60. Whenever the agency rejects the decision of an administrative law judge made pursuant to Section 11517 of the Government Code, the agency shall state the reasons in writing for rejecting the decision.
1798.199.65. The agency may subpoena witnesses, compel their attendance and testimony, administer oaths and affirmations, take evidence and require by subpoena the production of any books, papers, records, or other items material to the performance of the agency’s duties or exercise of its powers, including, but not limited to, its power to audit a business’ compliance with this title.
1798.199.70. No administrative action brought pursuant to this title alleging a violation of any of the provisions of this title shall be commenced more than five years after the date on which the violation occurred.
(a) The service of the probable cause hearing notice, as required by Section 1798.199.50, upon the person alleged to have violated this title shall constitute the commencement of the administrative action.
(b) If the person alleged to have violated this title engages in the fraudulent concealment of the person’s acts or identity, the five-year period shall be tolled for the period of the concealment. For purposes of this subdivision, “fraudulent concealment” means the person knows of material facts related to the person’s duties under this title and knowingly conceals them in performing or omitting to perform those duties for the purpose of defrauding the public of information to which it is entitled under this title.
(c) If, upon being ordered by a superior court to produce any documents sought by a subpoena in any administrative proceeding under this title, the person alleged to have violated this title fails to produce documents in response to the order by the date ordered to comply therewith, the five-year period shall be tolled for the period of the delay from the date of filing of the motion to compel until the date the documents are produced.
1798.199.75. (a) In addition to any other available remedies, the agency may bring a civil action and obtain a judgment in superior court for the purpose of collecting any unpaid administrative fines imposed pursuant to this title after exhaustion of judicial review of the agency’s action. The action may be filed as a small claims, limited civil, or unlimited civil case depending on the jurisdictional amount. The venue for this action shall be in the county where the administrative fines were imposed by the agency. In order to obtain a judgment in a proceeding under this section, the agency shall show, following the procedures and rules of evidence as applied in ordinary civil actions, all of the following:
1798.199.80. (a) If the time for judicial review of a final agency order or decision has lapsed, or if all means of judicial review of the order or decision have been exhausted, the agency may apply to the clerk of the court for a judgment to collect the administrative fines imposed by the order or decision, or the order as modified in accordance with a decision on judicial review.
(b) The application, which shall include a certified copy of the order or decision, or the order as modified in accordance with a decision on judicial review, and proof of service of the order or decision, constitutes a sufficient showing to warrant issuance of the judgment to collect the administrative fines. The clerk of the court shall enter the judgment immediately in conformity with the application.
(c) An application made pursuant to this section shall be made to the clerk of the superior court in the county where the administrative fines were imposed by the agency.
(d) A judgment entered in accordance with this section has the same force and effect as, and is subject to all the provisions of law relating to, a judgment in a civil action and may be enforced in the same manner as any other judgment of the court in which it is entered.
(e) The agency may bring an application pursuant to this section only within four years after the date on which all means of judicial review of the order or decision have been exhausted.
(f) The remedy available under this section is in addition to those available under any other law.
1798.199.85. Any decision of the agency with respect to a complaint or administrative fine shall be subject to judicial review in an action brought by an interested party to the complaint or administrative fine and shall be subject to an abuse of discretion standard.
(a) Any business, service provider, contractor, or other person that violates this title shall be subject to an injunction and liable for a civil penalty of not more than two thousand five hundred dollars ($2,500) for each violation or seven thousand five hundred dollars ($7,500) for each intentional violation and each violation involving the personal information of minor consumers, as adjusted pursuant to paragraph (5) of subdivision (a) of Section 1798.185, which shall be assessed and recovered in a civil action brought in the name of the people of the State of California by the Attorney General. The court may consider the good faith cooperation of the business, service provider, contractor, or other person in determining the amount of the civil penalty.
(b) Any civil penalty recovered by an action brought by the Attorney General for a violation of this title, and the proceeds of any settlement of any said action, shall be deposited in the Consumer Privacy Fund.
(c) The agency shall, upon request by the Attorney General, stay an administrative action or investigation under this title to permit the Attorney General to proceed with an investigation or civil action and shall not pursue an administrative action or investigation, unless the Attorney General subsequently determines not to pursue an investigation or civil action. The agency may not limit the authority of the Attorney General to enforce this title.
(d) No civil action may be filed by the Attorney General under this section for any violation of this title after the agency has issued a decision pursuant to Section 1798.199.85 or an order pursuant to Section 1798.199.55 against that person for the same violation.
1798.199.95. (a) There is hereby appropriated from the General Fund of the state to the agency the sum of five million dollars ($5,000,000) during the fiscal year 2020–2021, and the sum of ten million dollars ($10,000,000) adjusted for cost-of-living changes, during each fiscal year thereafter, for expenditure to support the operations of the agency pursuant to this title. The expenditure of funds under this appropriation shall be subject to the normal administrative review given to other state appropriations. The Legislature shall appropriate those additional amounts to the commission and other agencies as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this title.
(b) The Department of Finance, in preparing the state budget and the Budget Act bill submitted to the Legislature, shall include an item for the support of this title that shall indicate all of the following:
1798.199.100. The agency and any court, as applicable, shall consider the good faith cooperation of the business, service provider, contractor, or other person in determining the amount of any administrative fine or civil penalty for a violation of this title. A business shall not be required by the agency, a court, or otherwise to pay both an administrative fine and a civil penalty for the same violation.
(a) The provisions of this act may be amended after its approval by the voters by a statute that is passed by a vote of a majority of the members of each house of the Legislature and signed by the Governor, provided that those amendments are consistent with and further the purpose and intent of this act as set forth in Section 3, including amendments to the exemptions in Section 1798.145 if the laws upon which the exemptions are based are amended to enhance privacy and are consistent with and further the purposes and intent of this act and amendments to address a decision of a state or federal court holding that a provision of the act is unconstitutional or preempted by federal law, provided that any further amendments to legislation that addresses a court holding shall be subject to this subdivision.
(b) Notwithstanding Section 1798.199.25, the Legislature may authorize additional compensation for members of the California Consumer Privacy Agency, if it determines that it is necessary to carry out the agency’s functions, by a statute that is passed by a vote of a majority of the members of each house of the Legislature and signed by the Governor.
(c) This section applies to all statutes amended or reenacted as part of this act, and all provisions of those statutes, regardless of whether this act makes any substantive change thereto.
(d) The provisions of this act shall prevail over any conflicting legislation enacted after January 1, 2020. Any amendments to this act or any legislation that conflicts with any provision of this act shall be null and void upon passage of this act by the voters, regardless of the code in which it appears. Legislation shall be considered “conflicting” for purposes of this subdivision, unless the legislation is consistent with and furthers the purpose and intent of this act as set forth in Section 3.
If any provision of this measure, or part of this measure, or the application of any provision or part to any person or circumstances, is for any reason held to be invalid, the remaining provisions, or applications of provisions, shall not be affected, but shall remain in full force and effect, and to this end the provisions of this measure are severable. If a court were to find in a final, unreviewable judgment that the exclusion of one or more entities or activities from the applicability of the act renders the act unconstitutional, those exceptions should be severed and the act should be made applicable to the entities or activities formerly exempt from the act. It is the intent of the voters that this act would have been enacted regardless of whether any invalid provision had been included or any invalid application had been made.
(a) In the event that this measure and another measure addressing consumer privacy shall appear on the same statewide ballot, the provisions of the other measure or measures shall be deemed to be in conflict with this measure. In the event that this measure receives a greater number of affirmative votes than a measure deemed to be in conflict with it, the provisions of this measure shall prevail in their entirety, and the other measure or measures shall be null and void.
(b) If this measure is approved by the voters but superseded by law by any other conflicting measure approved by voters at the same election, and the conflicting ballot measure is later held invalid, this measure shall be self-executing and given full force and effect.
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, if the state or any of its officials fail to defend the constitutionality of this act, following its approval by the voters, any other government agency of this state shall have the authority to intervene in any court action challenging the constitutionality of this act for the purpose of defending its constitutionality, whether that action is in state or federal trial court, on appeal, or on discretionary review by the Supreme Court of California or the Supreme Court of the United States. The reasonable fees and costs of defending the action shall be a charge on funds appropriated to the Department of Justice, which shall be satisfied promptly.
This act shall be liberally construed to effectuate its purposes.
This act is intended to supplement federal and state law, where permissible, but shall not apply if that application is preempted by, or in conflict with, federal law, or the California Constitution. The provisions of the act relating to children under 16 years of age shall only apply to the extent not in conflict with the federal Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act.
(a) This act shall become effective as provided in subdivision (a) of Section 10 of Article II of the California Constitution. Except as provided in subdivision (b), this act shall become operative January 1, 2023, and with the exception of the right of access, shall only apply to personal information collected by a business on or after January 1, 2022.
(b) Subdivisions (m) and (n) of Section 1798.145, Sections 1798.160, 1798.185, Sections 1798.199.10 through 1798.199.40, inclusive, and Section 1798.199.95 shall become operative on the effective date of the act.
(c) The provisions of the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018, amended by this act, shall remain in full force and effect and shall be enforceable until the same provisions of this act become operative and enforceable.